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Scottish History Timeline: 19th Century
1813-1829 AD
Policy for the Improvement of the Highlands / Irish & Scots Literary Revival / Famine & Substinence Crisis / Year of the Plague: The first of 14 partial famines [1816, 1817, 1818, 1819, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1830, 1831, 1836, 1837] that span years until 1845. Murder of Highlanders becomes legal. Highland houses burnt to the ground, dying Highlanders are called animals by Lady Sutherland. 1815: Corn Laws prohibit corn from being imported until prices have reached starvation level. Aristocrats collect tales from the dying, native tartan designs are suppressed and weavers are hired to create new tartans for the nobility. Sir Walter Scott’s propaganda on Highland culture favorable to the taste of the aristocracy is called  Balmoralism  after King Georg IV’s coronation at Balmoral Castle in 1822. Pains & Penalties Bill 1820 exiled his wife Queen Caroline (d 1821) of Braunschweig, turning her away from the coronation. Spa Fields Riots: Wheat prices rise. Londoners petition George IV for relief and are rejected. 10,000 storm the Tower of London after gathering at the Cock and Mulberry Tree public houses early in the morning. George IV’s carriage mobbed at Westminster, a bullet breaks through the window, Parliament is adjourned and Martial law is declared 30,000 Manchester cottonworkers walk towards London and are arrested. Pentrich Rising / Derbyshire Insurrection / Peterloo Massacre: Home Secretary Lord Sidmouth, sends William Oliver the Spy Richards to infiltrate and arrest Thomas Bacon’s men for protesting the National Debt. Leaders escape, protesters are sentenced to transportation, 3 hanged. 60,000 massacred after demonstrating for Parliamentary reform in Manchester. London Metropolitan Police force established after Cato Street Conspiracy plot to assassinate British cabinet.
Halloween 1828: William Burke & William Hare discovered murdering people and suppling their corpses preserved in whisky to Dr. Robert Knox’s Edinburgh anatomy schools. The corpse preservative, Rock-gut whisky, sold to medical students at a reduced cost. Knox is never prosecuted. Hare turns state’s evidence. Burke is hung, dissected, death-masked, and a wallet made from his tanned skin preserved at the Anatomy Museum of the Edinbugh Royal College of Surgeons. Burker Tales enters the vocabulary as horrible body-snatching stories told at Halloween. Deadsafes are manufactured as coffin-protectors. Watchtowers set up in graveyards.
International:1800-1815: Napoleonic Wars / Industrial Revolution / War of 1812 (Second War of American Independence) Battle of Queenstown Heights: USA invades Canada, captures York (now Toronto) capital of Upper Canada, burns public buildings. Battle of Lake Eerie: Oliver Hazard Perry destroys English fleet at Detroit. Battle of the Thames / Battle of Moraviantown. General William Henry Harrison vs English accompanied by 600 Indians under chief, Tecumseh. English flee after the first volley, but Tecumseh died on the battlefield. Court-martial reprimanded General Proctor & suspended him. 1814: Treaty of Kiel: Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden. Arthur Wellesley victorious over Joseph Bonaparte in Spain. French flee over the Pyrénées. Tens of thousands of French soldiers die in Portugal. Allies capture Paris, Napoleon abdicates throne at Fontainebleau, Allies place Bourbon king Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, on the throne. Napoleon exiled to Elba Island off northwest coast of Italy. July Battle of Lundy’s Lane / Battle of Chippewa: Major General Jacob Brown & Brigadier General Winfield Scott cross Niagra River from Buffalo to Canadian Fort Erie. August 24: Battle of Bladensburg: English under General Robert Ross burn down the USA Capitol, the White House, Library of Congress & public buildings. President Madison flees. English Navy vs Boston Navy in Chesapeake Bay. Sept 11 Battle of Lake Champlain: 11,000 English troops move into New York. Troops retreat when the destruction of the English fleet on the lake threaten supply lines back to Canada. December 24, 1814: English capture Fort Niagara, burn Buffalo & neighboring villages. Peace Treaty in Ghent, Belgium. Jan 8, 1815: Battle of New Orléans / Louisiana Slave Revolt: General Andrew Jackson, American artillery, sharpshooting riflemen kill 1,500 English soldiers & Commanding Officer Sir Edward Pakenham. Jean LaFitte reigns over the Louisiana slave trade. His castle on Galveston island is the Maison Rouge: Red House and he sells slaves for a dollar a pound to James Bowie. The largest slave revolt in the United States suppressed by U.S. troops under Andrew Jackson, Governor Claiborne, & Lafitte’s men. 1815: Congress of Vienna / Battle of Waterloo / Hundred Days’ War: Napoleon sails with 1,100 exiled followers to Cannes & marches to Paris. Louis XVIII flees. Napoleon advances into Belgium with 125,000 men to attack the Allies in the hope of driving the English into the sea. Prussian Marshal Gebhard von Blucher’s troops retreat at Ligny & the Duke of Wellington’s forces are blocked at Quatre Bras. French Admiral Ney fails to clear the cross-roads; Wellington’s troops hide at Mont St Jean. June 18: Napoleon attacks the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo, Brabant, but reinforcements from Blucher arrive & the French defeated. Napoleon abdicates, is exiled to St. Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, tries to escape to the United States, but fails & surrenders to Frederick Lewis Maitland, captain of the British battleship Bellerophon. Napoleon dies on May 5, 1821 & is buried at the Eglise du Dome part of the Hotel des Invalides: Home for Disabled Soldiers. Sovereignty over the Austrian Netherlands is given to Willem Frederik I a.k.a Prince William VI of Orange, King of Holland & Arch-Duke of Luxembourg. Famines the next year due officially to a failure of grain harvest hit France. Louis XVIII reduces the tariffs slightly on grain. Tariffs increased when Charles X takes the throne from 1827 to 1830. 1819-1830: Peruvian War of Independance / Grand Columbia: In 1819, Simon Bolivar defeats the Spaniards at Boyaca, liberating the territory of Colombia. He then returns to Angostura and leads the congress for the republic of Gran Colombia: which includes what are now Colombia and Venezuela. Panama joins in 1821, Ecuador joins in 1822. Bolivar became dictator of Peru in 1824. Under the leadership of General Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bolivar’s army won a victory over the Spaniards at Ayacucho in 1824, which ended Spanish power in South America. Upper Peru became a separate state, named Bolivia in Bolivar’s honor, in 1825. By 1830, the republic of Gran Colombia had split into three separate countries-Colombia (including Panama), Ecuador, Venezuela. He narrowly escaped assassination in Bogota and resigned as president of Colombia in 1830. 1821: New Spain Revolt: In New Spain, Father Miguel Hidalgo is executed for trying to make México independant His head is displayed on a pike. The armed struggle continues, led by Father José Maria Morelos y Pavon who captures the Pacific seaport cities of Oaxaca & Alcapulco. When he is killed by the Viceroy Spanish army Lieutenant Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña continues. [Land stolen from natives. Only Spanish born colonists allowed to own land and plantations.] 1822: Missouri banker Stephen F. Austin granted a Texas colony by New Spain. Empresarios. found many colonies. BIA: Bureau of Indian Affairs: created under the USA War Department March 11, 1824. Officials halt American immigration to Texas in 1830. Neapolitan Revolt: Ferdinand VII deposed. Anglo-Burmese War: Lord Amhurst invades Burma Russo-Persian War / Policy for the Improvement of the Jews / Polish Rebellion: Poland partitioned. Nobility come under the control of the Czars. Russia is given part of Armenia, Georgia & northern Azerbaijan. Jews expelled from Russia. Greek, Cretan, Serbian & Decembrists’ Uprisings against the Ottoman empire. Guyana: British troops massacre slaves. The bullet riddled body of Quamina, bound in chains, put on public show. Black War: Aborigines revolt, spear Englishmen to death, mutilate their corpses, steal sheep, flour, sugar, burn crops and houses. English poison their flour and sugar, sell them into slavery, and feed them to dogs. Chilean War of Independance:José Miguel Carrera & Bernardo O’Higgins. Argentine-Brazilian War: 1828: Brazil gave up the territory of Uruguay: Uruguay created by British mediation. 1831: Pedro I forced to resign. He left his throne to his 5-year-old son, Pedro IIPadri Minangkabau: Dipo Negoro’s War: Dutch invade Java, starve the people, and seize land. Prince Dipo Negoro revolts. War of the Two Brothers: Charles Napier’s naval squadron invades Lisbon to restore Pedro to the throne after his brother seizes the monarchy.
1830-1839 AD
King William Henry IV, brother of Georg IV, ascends throne. Anatomy Act of 1832: Authorizes workhouse corpse dissection 1832: Aberdeen Riots: Doctor Moir’s Aberdeen Anatomical Theatre seiged by a mob and burnt to the ground. A dog digging at the rear of the theatre discovered a bone, which caused rumors that hundreds of dismembered corpses were buried there. Tithe War: Daniel O’Connell appeals to Irish farmers to stop paying mandatory tithes to the Church of England. The English send in thousands of troops. Protestant clergy, unable to collect the tithes, survive on the English Relief Fund. O’Connell asks for a repeal of the Tithe Act and is elected Lord Mayor. He holds Monster Meetings and attracts a quarter million Irish. The government forbids the Clontarf meeting and sends in 5 regiments of soldiers. O’Connell is tried and imprisoned. Poor Law Amendment Act (4 & 5 Will IV c. 76): Sir Edwin Chadwick abolishes outdoor relief, allows workhouse owners to charge taxes to citizens on loan-money borrowed to create new and larger concentration camps, orders larger concentration camps to be built after Easter Sunday, introduces the Bills of Mortality, mandates that a concentration camp be built within ten miles of every town in England and Wales and that all victims sign in. 1837 General Election: Bristol Riot: Houses of Parliament destroyed by fire. Protesters kill 7 police-men of the 14th Royal Dragoons, burn the Mansion House, Customs House, three prisons, and sixty five houses down to the ground. The Dragoons kill 70 people and wound hundreds. The British army call the riot unprovoked.King William’s niece Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld gains the throne. Under Salic law she is not allowed to inherit the Kingdom of Hanover so his brother Ernest Augustus I, the infamous Duke of Cumberland goes to rule Germany with his cousin Frederica Louisa Carolina Sophia Alexandra of Mecklenburg-Streitz.
Agricultural ‘Swing’ Riots: The poor of England riot and attack workhouses. They identify themselves as supporters of ‘Captain Swing’. The parsons of Headley and Selborne workhouses agree to halve the income they collect from tithes. The Royal Commission, under the chairmanship of the Bishop of London, with commissoners Nassau Senior and Edwin Chadwick declare that poverty is caused the indigence of individuals rather than economic and social conditions. London Workingmens’Association: Chartist Petition calls for voting by ballot, universal male suffrage, annual Parliaments, equal electoral districts, no property qualifications for members of Parliament, and payment of members. It is rejected. Surviving leaders [22 are shot to death] are arrested at the Liverpool Assizes. Newport Riots: A confrontation between Chartist miners, railway magnates, and the military under Sir Charles Napier.
International: Angry mobs destroy Ohio’s Worthington Medical College for its practice of using cadavers stolen from graveyards. Dissection legal in MA. 1830 : Belgian Revolution: Treaty of London: The opera La Muette de Portici about repression of Neapolitans is staged in Brussels. A riot begins and the Minister Justice, who lives in Brussels, is almost killed. King William VI of Orange sends troops to repress the riots. Netherlands split into Holland & Belgium. The new independant state of Belgium is proclaimed. July Revolution: Charles X overthrown and replaced by Louis-Philippe Duke of Orléans. France captures Algiers [Suez Canal construction]. Mohammed Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt moves Ramses II’s 3300-year-old Obelisk of Luxor to la Place de la Concorde. Cholera kills 19,000. Emancipation Rebellion of Western Jamaica: Sam Sharpe & 20,000 slaves set the Kensington sugar works Estate in St. James on fire. 201 rebels killed in fighting the combined forces of the British army, navy and local militia. St. Kitts Rebellion, La Amistad Revolt: Cinque/Singbe, an African headman from Sierra Leone is kidnapped, kills the captain & crew. Cinque & 38 of his followers arrested with piracy at Long Island Their ‘owners’ sue for their return. According to Anti-Slavery International the average slave in 1850 fetches $40,000. Opium War: Shanghai banking collapes. China opened to foreign trade. Permanent trade zones established and dominated by the west and Japan. South China hived off to coastal European powers; central China to European inland powers; north China (what eventually became occupied Manchuria) to the Japanese. ...Portugal and Spain were vanquished to the south; and a joint English and American control of south Chinese trade took off to immensely profitable levels. This becoming the era of the famous clippers or sailing ships from Boston financiers that led to great fortunes being made in the tea and opium trade, and the importation of huge numbers of Chinese and Korean ceramics into western Europe & America. ’ England seizes Hong Kong. Black Hawk Massacre / Black Hawk War: Sac-Sauk & Fox Indians killed while planting corn. Government had moved them from Illinois to Iowa. Chief Black Hawk led a band of several hundred back across the Mississippi River in 1832 to try to regain their lands near Rock Island, Illinois. Black Hawk & his two sons captured, imprisoned in Fort Monroe until 1833, & then moved to the Fort Des Moines reservation. Later his bones removed to the Historical Society Building in Burlington, Iowa. British American Land Company of Canada under Alexander Tilloch Galt seizes The Eastern Townships in 1833, divides land into ten-mile-square parcels, and awards them to loyalists who fought in the War of 1812. Mexican Pastry War: Anastasio Bustamante refuses to pay debt on loans to France. France destroys Veracruz with US warships. Mexico agrees to pay debt under mediation. In 1834, General Antonio López de Santa Ana, a Mexican politician & soldier, overthrew Mexico’s constitutional government & made himself dictator. 1835: Texas colonists revolt against Mexico. Antonio López de Santa Ana attacks the Alamo Mission in San Antonio, kills ex-slave trader Jim Bowie, Congressman David Crockett, the Tennessee militia, & lawyer William B. Travis. Sam Houston finally defeats Santa Ana & establishes the Republic of Texas. 1837: Maria Ignacia Lopez de Carillo, half-sister of governor Pio Pico and mother-in-law of General Mariano Guadeloupe de Vallejo builds an adobe home in Santa Rosa, California. Her son Julio builds the courthouse. Battle of Blood River: Boer Dutch Colonists with British weaponry seize land and fight 10,000 Zulus under King Shaka. Bay of Islands War: First Maori War, Treaty of Waitangi, Wairau Massacre: Maori chiefs in New Zealand recognize British sovereignty in return for tribes being guaranteed possession of their lands. They are massacred.
1840-1846 AD
Queen Alexandrina Victoria marries Prince Albert von Wettin of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Edward Oxford attempts to assassinate her while she is riding in a carriage with Prince Albert in London, but both bullets miss. John Francis tries killing her in 1842, misses, and is sentenced to a lifetime of slavery. Rioters burn Depwade workhouse in protest of tickets. [Unemployed laborers were given a ticket to take to local employers. If no work was available, the employer would sign the ticket. Relief was only given to those submitting completed tickets.] Bone Crushing: Starving inmates at Andover workhouse fight over scraps of rotting meat left on bones they were supposed to be crushing into dust for fertilizer. 70 new death-camps created in Scotland. Chartist Co-operative Land Co. purchases houses, but settlers sent to concentration camps. Turner’s Rebellion: Southampton Insurrection: Southern English Trade Unionists deported to penal colonies in Australia. At Macquarrie Prison: Hell’s Gate, they are beaten, starved to death, told to bounty hunt aborigines by prison wardens, and survive by eating rats and the dead bodies of their comrades.
International: Indian Removal Act: President Andrew Jackson forces natives to concentration camps called reservations. Mandans exterminated. The Long Walk. Nunna daul Tsuny (The Trail Where they Cried): The seven clans of the Cherokees death marched from Georgia to Oklahoma by orders of President Van Buren under General Winfield Scott. Manifest Destiny: Land Donation Law: Cornelius Smith invades Oregon. Government allots 320 acres to white male pioneers and 640 acres to married white couples to displace British claims Uruguay: Siege of Montevideo: British & French naval forces blockade Buenos Aires until the Colorado oligarchy wins over the Blanco oligarchy at Cerrito. Caste War: Yucatán Secession English settlers invade Belize. Mayans in the Yucatán attack key Spanish positions. Naning War, Malaysia: Refuses to hand over one-10th of his state’s crops to the English.
1846- 1867 AD
The Great Hunger: Trevelyan’s deliberately engineered, genocidal famines.Potato blight hits Ireland and Scotland. English export grain, cattle, and harvested food and watch the Irish and Scots die. In one day the AJAX carries butter,wheat, bales of bacon, ham, whiskey, 102 casks of pork, 844 tons of oats, 145 casks of porter, 12 sacks of fodder, 28 bales of feathers, 8 sacks of lard, 296 boxes of eggs, 30 head of cattle, 90 pigs, 220 lambs, 34 calves and 69 miscellaneous packages. Royal Irish Regiment formed to kill the Irish.Gregory Clause: Those that go to the Workhouses for food are required to give up their land titles to their landlords, work for gruel, and are moved to the Dying Rooms as they weaken. Corpses are pushed through chutes into mass graves outside. 12 million bodies are left to rot on the sides of roads.
The Times September 2, 1846:
Ireland is like a half-starved rat that crosses the path of an elephant. What must the elephant do? Squelch it - by heavens - squelch it... ...A Celt will soon be as rare on the banks of the Shannon as the red man on the banks of Manhattan.
Punch Magazine claims the Irish and Scots are lazy, immoral, bloodthirsty and subhuman. Queen Victoria says the Irish women have beautiful hair even when they are dying and sets up the Highland Emigration Society. Highlanders are seized and placed onto slave ships in chains to the Americas. The tricolor national flag of Ireland presented by the Young Irelanders. Salmon disappear from the Thames river and the river is used as a dumping ground for industrial waste and sewage. 35,000 Londoners die of cholera after bathing in the river. [It is not until the 1857 heatwave carrying the stench to the Houses of Parliament that clean-up is considered. It is still polluted] English wheat harvest fails. 1850 Burials Act Prohibits all future burials in London and establishs cemeteries away from the capital. Sugar Equalization Duties Act of 1851: Slave products of Cuba, Brazil and foreign plantations equal with European beet sugar Second Chartist Petition: The 79-year old Duke of Wellington sends in London’s defences: 150,000 Special Constables (including Gladstone and Louis Napoleon Bonaparte) and the army to stop the Chartists from drafting their petition. Chartist Feargus O’Connor is declared mentally insane, diagnosed with ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ and committed to Dr. Tuke’s Lunatic Asylum in Chiswick in 1852. Lugh na Tigh: Lugh’s House for devotees of the god Lugh. Translated into English as Lunatic. 1861: Scottish Census: The first to be held after the introduction of statutory records. Subsequent censuses held on 3 April 1871, 4 April 1881, & 5 April 1891 indicate whether or not an individual speaks Gaelic. English Eugenics Society a.k.a The Galton Institute formed. Francis Galton publishes Hereditary Genius— the idea that the governing classes of England should guide the development of the human genetic heritage. “Cleansing the human race by sterilizing the ‘unfit.’”
International: 1846-1848: US-Mexican War: Jan 13, 1847: Treaty of Cachuenga, Feb 2, 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in Alta California [invaded for its sea port]. Signed by Lieutenant-Colonel John Charles Fremont of the California Battalion of United States forces & General Andrés Pico, Gefe de las fuerzas nacionales en California: Chief of the National Forces in California on January 13, 1847 on the kitchen table of Tomás Feliz’s 6-room adobe house at Campo de Cahuenga in what is now North Hollywood. The treaty allowed the Californios who fought under the Mexican Flag to return home after giving up their artillery at Mission San Fernando. The California Battalion agreed not to again take up arms during the war between the United States and Mexico. The treaty provided that all prisoners from both sides be immediately freed. General Zachary Taylor’s [later US President who died in 1852] Army of Occupation invades the Rio Grande [January 1846], Palo Alto [May, 1846], Monterrey [Sept 21, 1846], Saltillo, Buena Vista [Feb 3, 1847], fighting against Gen. Mariano Arista, General Antonio López de Santa Ana, General Pedra de Ampudia and the Irish American Batallón de San Patricios under John O’Riley a.k.a Juan Reley and Patrick Dalton. Center Division under John E. Wool invades Chihuahua. Taylor then leaves and the Occupation Army under General Winfield Scott & Engineer Robert E. Lee invade Veracruz [March 9, 1847], Puebla, Churubusco Convent near Mexico City [Aug 20, 1847], Molino del Rey [Sept 6, 1847], Chapultepec [Sept 12, 1847], Mexico City [Sept 14, 1847], Huamantla [October 9, 1847] fighting against General Antonio López de Santa Ana, General Joaquín Rea, Mexican battalions Independencia y Bravo under President Pedro María Anaya, Battallón de San Patricios and Mexican guerilla forces. When General Anaya was asked by General Twiggs to hand over his ammunition after the end of the battle of Churbusco, he was reputed to have replied, If I had any ammunition, you would not be here. General José Joaquin de Herrera replaces Santa Ana after Huamantla. The San Patricios were court martialled in Mexico City in 1847 for treason. By order of General Winfield Scott, they were to be executed at the precise moment that the flag of the United States replaced that of Mexico [President Manuel Peña y Peña] atop the citadel. When the flag was run up the fortress’ pole, the gallows were dropped. Those who survived the war generally disappeared from history. A handful are on record as having made use of the land claims promised them by the Mexican government. To commemorate the support of those Irish-American renegades in the Mexican army, the street in front of the Santa María de Churubusco convent was named Mártires Irlandeses: Irish martyrs. The Batallón San Patricio is also commemorated on two separate days in Mexico; the first being September 12, the anniversary of the first executions, and the other on Saint Patrick’s Day. 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Mexico cedes Upper [Alta] California, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Texas, Arizona & Nevada to the US for 15 million. Yerba Buena of the 1830s renamed San Francisco, CA and occupied by Central Pacific Railroad. Yerba Buena cemetery (modern city hall) bodies are re-interred in Colma in 1913. 1848: Battle of St Lucia / Lamoricière / February Revolution / Second Republic of France: Massive crop failures throughout France and Central Europe lead to unrest. King Louis Phillippe forbids a huge banquet scheduled for Feb. 22, 1848, in Paris, and his troops shoot at the banquet goers. Louis Phillipe is overthrown and Louis Napoléon Bonaparte: Napoléon III, nephew of Napoleon I, wins the presidency by 5 million votes in 1848. Baron Haussman, Prefect of the Seine. Windischgratz captures Vienna. Schleswig Revolt (1848-1850): Holstein and Schleswig, two Danish duchies located south of Denmark in Germany join the German Confederation. 1849: Papacy restored. Franz Joseph I Hapsburg declared Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia & Hungary. Hungary refuses the monarchy and Hungary is reduced to obedience, but not before the Emperor is seriously knife-wounded by Hungarian Mr. Lebenyi. 1850: King Frederik VII of Denmark’s troops defeat Schleswig rebels. 1847: Whitman Massacre: Walla-Walla Massacre: Cayuse WarThe Chief of the Walla Walla’s son is murdered. The Father of Oregon Jean-Baptist McLoughlin, who had been aquitted of the murder of Red River Colony Governor Robert Semple while employed by the Hudson Bay Company, is promoted to Columbia District Chief Factor. Cayuse and Umatilla are dying of measles, cholera and scarlet fever. Cayuse Chiefs Tiloukaikt & Tomahas, Kiamsumpkin, Iaiachalakis and Klokomas go to the Waiilatpu mission for medicine. According to trial documents in Oregon City they are accused of killing measles doctor Dr Marcus Whitman [who led the first wagon train along the Oregon Trail], Narcissa Whitman, Andrew Rogers, Jacob Hoffman, L. W. Sanders, Mr. Marsh, John Sager, Nathan Kimball, Isaac Gilliland, James Young, Frank Sager, Crockett Blewley and Amos Sales and holding 54 women and children for ransom, including the daughter of Rocky Mountain Fur Company mogul Jim Bridger and the Sager orphans. There is no mention of a jury and the men are sentenced to death by hanging in 1850 by Territorial Marshall Joseph Meek. Clergyman Cornelius Gilliam and his force of 500 militiamen invade the Cayuse, Umatilla, & Walla-Walla homeland. The tribes retreat into the Blue Mountains continuing to fight with guerilla warfare through 1855. 1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act: Soldier of fortune William Walker, hired by railroad magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, is kidnapped by the Huron. 1853: Walker seizes Baja California and declares it a Republic. He invades Grenada, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, & Costa Rica. Walker becomes president of Nicaragua [The major trade route between New York City & San Francisco through the San Juan River] and writes The War in Nicaragua He is overthrown by Cornelius Vanderbilt with US forces; handed over to the British and executed in Honduras in 1860. Crimean War: 1854 Armenia comes under control of the Czars. England fights on the side of the Turks because Russia is seeking to control the Dardanelles and thus threaten England’s Mediterranean sea routes. 1859: War of Italian Independence: Risorgimento: Napoleon III promises to help Count di Cavour drive the Austrians from Italy, in return for the promise of Nice & Savoy. He withdraws. Austria loses all of its Italian possessions leading to a new unified Italian monarchy: King Victor Emmanuel II.Mitre’s Rebellion: Buenos Aires army led by General Bartolome Mitrer refuses Urquiza’s confederation of Argentina. Buenos Aires enters the confederation on its own terms in 1862, becomes the nation’s capital, & Mitre elected president. May 5, 1862: Batalla de Puebla Puebla, Mexico. 1861: Napoleon III invades Mexico for minerals. Archduke Maximillian III of Austria arrives in Veracruz with his wife Carlotta to govern the country as Emperor of Mexico. Count Charles Latrille de Lorencez’ 6,500 artillery troops are defeated by General Ignacio Zaragoza, General Jaime Garcia’s infantry, Porfirio Díaz cavalry, the Zacapoaxtla and Xochiapulco. On May 9, 1862, President Juárez declares that the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla would be a national holiday, the Cinco de Mayo. The victory quashed Napoleon III’s hopes of a quick takeover of Mexico, which he was planning to use as a base to aid the Confederates in the American Civil War. He supported a scheme making Maximilian, the Archduke of Austria, emperor of Mexico in 1864. United States pressure in 1867 forced him to withdraw his troops and leave Maximilian to be shot. Maximillian III, Méndez, Mejía & Miramón executed at Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro by Mexican President Benito Juarez in 1867. Carlotta flees to Europe. 1861-1865: US Civil War: Oregon enters the Union as a non-slave state in 1859. According to World Book Encyclopedia by 1860, the slave states had 4 million slaves. The slaves made up nearly a third of the South’s population. 45,000 planters owned slaves, controlling the economy & government of the Southern States. C Battery British Dragoons “North Carolina State Troops” hired by North Carolina Railroad. 1861: Secession U.S. Senator John J. Crittenden proposes creating a slave-holding empire in tropical Latin America with the 36°30' North parallel as a line of demarcation between free and slave territories. Abraham Lincoln, of the anti-slavery Republican Party, denounces the arrangement, saying that it ‘would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against every people, tribe, and State owning a foot of land between here and Tierra del Fuego.’ Former Secretary of War Jefferson Davis resigns from Congress and is selected as the first president of the Confederate States of America the next day February 4, 1861 which includes: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas & Louisiana. He is followed by Senator Alexander ‘Smart Aleck’ Stephens. Georgia Senator Robert Toombs has to hire a carriage to take him South because his personal slaves had run off to be free. California and Oregon consider alligning themselves into a new country called TransPacifica – Poor Tom’s Almanac Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, brother-in-law of Queen Victoria, appoints Ernst Raven diplomatic exequatur to the Confederate Government on July 30, 1861. 1862 Conscription law places all citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 not exempt from military service under the control of Confederate Authorities. Bodies of veterans transported to Ford Theatre. Battle of Lynchburg: British Dragoon “Virginia Militia” N Battery battle Federal Troops, advance to Baltimore, find a deserted city, plunder the capitol. Federal Troops attack train, raid supplies, shoot color guard & flag bearer. Battle of Bunker Hill: Confederate Armies surrender. President Davis incarcerated in 1865. Reconstruction begins as Federal troops invade the South: carpetbaggers. Riots engulf the nation & are reported from 1865 to 1955. Hundreds of lynchings & acts of mob terror occur throughout the era but are unreported in the press. Black Code prohibits Blacks from voting. ’Effects of slavery included a major role in the economic development of the United States. Slaves helped clear the wilderness and build important canals, railroads, and roads. The cotton picked by slaves became the nation’s most valuable export. The income from cotton paid for a major share of U.S. imports. ’ World Book Encyclopedia Chivington Massacre / Sand Creek Massacre / Cheyenne-Arapaho War / Colorado War of 1864-65 / Fetterman Massacre: Cheyenne & Arapaho refuse to sell hunting grounds to gold mining companies. Governor John Evans & Colonel John Chivington declare war. Colonal Edwin Sumner massacres Cheyenne & the Navajo of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. Sumner burns crops, kills livestock, & imprisons survivors at Fort Sumner, New Mexico until 1868. Northern Arapaho Black Bear band fight 3 columns 3,000 troops sent into the Powder River. Oglala war chief Red Cloud kills Fetterman and 80 men 1866: Austro-Prussian War / Seven Weeks War / Unification / Battle of Koniggritz / German Civil War: Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck wants to unite Prussia and German states into one country. Prussia wins, taking over Schleswig and Holstein. Barrackpore Mutiny: England annexes Oudh, Punjab Sonthals revolt. West Africa [Faidherbe governor of Senegal] invaded for palm oil. Piedmontese / Sardinian Insurrections Napoleon III / Sardinia against Austria.Treaty of Nankin China’s borders opened. Muslims rebel in China. Apache & Navaho War / Long Walk Massacre: Apache Nation [Geronimo] fights General Nelson A Miles. Death march. Land divided between US & Mexico. Battle of Four Lakes: Yakima War, Washington 13 tribes’ lands stolen. People placed in reservations. Chief Kamaiakan flees to Canada Spirit Lake Massacre: Inkpaduta & Dakota starved to death. 33 settlers killed. Mountain Meadows Massacre: Utah Mormons murder 120 Arkansas pioneers headed for California.Meiji Restoration: Tokugawa shogunate falls, Japan becomes a subjugated nation and signs unequal European treaties. Capital is moved from Kyoto to Tokyo. Pahang-Malay Civil War / Selangor: Sultan Abdus-Samad issues a decree declaring the Mandailing a menace and orders their extermination. His forts in Ulu Klang fall to the invading Pahang-Malay, Hakka Chinese and Kedah forces Second Opium War (Arrow War) Bhutanese MassacreBritish kill 100.
1867- 1880 AD
The Earl of Rossmore’s brother becomes Secretary of the Grand Jury of Ireland and holds a cock fight in the Monaghan Court house. The aristocracy makes up 73 percent of English Parliament and control the justiciary of Ireland and Scotland. The Irish People Newspaper is seized and the editors are deported to penal colonies. Shamrock clover used as a symbol of rebellion. Those who wear it or wear green are hanged. The Famine hits Shropshire, England and is embeded in the fairy tale of an immortal white cow who comes to give milk. British Child Emigration Scheme: The government with the cooperation of: The United Church, Protestant Adoption Society, Catholic Church, Presybterian Church, Reverend John Edward, Father Nugent, Drs Thomas and Bowman, Charlotte Alexander, Oliver Hind, Lord Douglas, Sir Middlemore, Salvation Army, Church of England, and the Self Help Emigration Society deport thousands of Scottish, Irish, and Welsh children without consent to work as indentured servants a.k.a slaves in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. This continues until the 1960s. Irish women are raped by the aristocracy and it is called: Taking one’s pleasure in the country and sowing one’s wild oats in one’s county town. Lord Briscoe dared not throw a stone at any child in the town of Carrick-on-Suir for fear it might be his own. The 72 year old bachelor Earl of Leitrim is shot dead on his estate in Donegal with his driver and clerk after evicting tenants (a.k.a rack-renting), irritating local police, killing tenants’ goats, and raping a local farm woman. The assasins escape in a boat. It is believed the entire countryside know who they were.
International: Coffee exports from fazendas, plantations through English railroads from Santos to Sao Paulo, Brazil [supplies half the world’s coffee], rise from 350,000 bags to ten million by the 1920s. Coffee is the second most valuable commodity in world trade next to oil. 1868: Second Reich / Franco-Prussian War / Guerre franco-allemande / Deutsch-Französischer Krieg / La semaine sanglante: Revolt removes Queen Isabella of Spain. War begins over the possible ascension of a candidate from the Sigmaringen branch of the Hohenzollern royal family to the vacant Spanish throne. Napoléon III vs Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia & the German Confederation. The Kaiser seizes territory in eastern France, and creates the German Empire. Prussian Field-Marshall Helmuth Karl von Moltke defeats Marshal Patrice MacMahon & Marshal Bazaine’s French armies at Wissembourg, Woerth Spicheren, & Metz. 1870: France withdraws troops from Rome. Sept. 2, 1870: Battle of Sedan: Napoléon III & MacMahon’s 83,000 troops taken prisoner at Sedan by Helmuth Karl von Moltke & Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Two days later Parisians revolt, invade the National Assembly, proclaim the Third Republic: President Louis Adolphe Thiers. Napoléon III permitted to leave Prussian custody for exile in England, while the Prussian Meuse Army and the Third Army go on to besiege Paris. Battalions of starving Parisians join the National Guard & fight with cannons. Paris yields to the Germans in May 10th 1871 during the bloody Paris Commune: Treaty of Frankfurt: The Confederation of the Rhine’s center is Frankfort. Because it sides with Austria it is seized by Prussia and becomes part of Greater Imperial Germany until November 9th 1918. Germany seizes Alsace-Lorraine from France and France agrees to German army of occupation until the 1 billion paid. Kaiser Wilhelm I crowned Emperor of Germany & King of Hungary at the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles. Paris Commune, the Communards, burn the Palace of the Tuileries. 20,000 die in a week of blood as the Commune is suppressed by the French army under General Patrice MacMahon. The Versaillese government army kills thousands burying them at the Mur des Fédérés: Communards’ Wall at Cimetière du Père Lachaise. The cemetery itself is named after Père François de la Chaise (1624-1709), confessor of Louis XVI. German Federal Reserve Bank: Bundesbank a.k.a Reichsbank Frankfurt a.k.a Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft founded by 4 entrepreneurs: Meister Lucius & Co. Dye factory [becomes I.G. Farbenindustrie AG or Farbwerke Hoechst AG, vormals Meister Lucius & Brüni in 1925 Now Aventis]. German constitution provides a two-house parliament: Reichstag, elected by the people. Bundesrat, appointed by the state governments. To pay the debt Men, women, and children sold into slavery to the French Islands of the Pacific: New Caledonia, Tahiti. 1871: United States Congress concludes tribes no longer separate, independent governments. This action freed the United States from the need to make treaties with the Indians. 1872: Geneva Tribunal: Swiss Arbitration Commission ruled England should pay the United States 15 1/2 million dollars. The Alabama, Florida, Shenandoah & 17 other Confederate warships built in England had destroyed much Northern shipping during the Civil War. 1872-1873: Modoc War (Lava Beds War):Starving Modoc Indians of northern California & southern Oregon barely surviving the reservation they were placed into in 1864, escape home with Kintpuash-Captain Jack, fleeing to Tule Lake, California to hide in the lava beds formed by an extinct volcano holding out for five months. The Army hanged Captain Jack & three of his men for murder in October 1873. 1876-1879: French Indochina War: 13 million+ Chinese die in famine. Francis Garnier, Indochina administrator writes that Asian government “signifies stagnation,” while European intervention signifies “commercial freedom, progress, and wealth.” Treaty of Huê: French seize Tonkin and Vietnam. General Winfield Scott Hancock Campaign / Custer’s Seventh Cavalry / Battle of the Washita Kiowa, Cheyenne [Tall Bull & White Horse] & Arapaho placed on reservations in the Red River, transported to Ft. Marion Prison, St. Augustine, Florida. Battle of Little Bighorn / Sioux War / Battle of the Greasy Grass General Custer invades the Black Hills reservation of the Lakota for gold. The US goverment seizes the land, but not before Custer is annihilated. Black Depression:Highland Scots and Irish slaves in Canada starved by the English. English government offers Land Buying Schemes to the nobles, completes the Intercolonial Railway, and kills off the buffalo (1. wild ox native to North American continent. Latin: bovine family. 2. to intimidate. bull: male ox/cattle. bull-baiting a.k.a bullying: the formerly popular sport of setting dogs to attack a tethered bull.) Nova Scotia coal miners revolt and burn the legislature of Montreal. Canadian Prime Minister Thomas Hackett is assasinated on the twelfth of July 1877. Nez Percé War (1877): The Nimipu under Chief Joseph refuse to move from their home in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon. 70 vs 100 soldiers at White Bird Canyon, Idaho. 800 retreat southeast through Montana & north across Yellowstone Park. Surrender at Bears’ Paw Mountains, Montana to Colonel Nelson A. Miles after a 5-day battle. Civil War Reconstruction: USA Federal troops withdraw from the South in 1877. White Southern planters pass discriminatory laws-Black Codes in opposition to Charles Sumner & Benjamin F. Butler’s Civil Rights Act of 1875. Black & white people to use separate water fountains, public schools, bath houses, restaurants, public libraries, & rail cars. Later known as Jim Crow laws, after a minstrel character. Supreme Court invalidates Civil Rights Act in 1883 & does not pass another civil rights law until 1957. Riel Rebellion / Manitoba Act: Canadian government invades the Red River valley and deprives the Natives and “Half-Breeds” (Native and French, Scots or Irish extraction) of their lands. The Red River people revolt, Louis Riel kills the leader of the English Loyalists and escapes into the woods of Montana. The Red River is absorbed into Canada as Manitoba. Napier Commission: Ethiopian Civil WarBritish army invade Ethiopeia, imprison king Theodore II, capture the capital city of Magdala. Eduard Schnitzer of the Turkish army (who is warring with Albania & Montenegro) joins the British Army and is made military governor of Sudan. Sudanese Mahdi rebel. England withdraws. Truganini a.k.a Princess Lalla Rookh, the last native full-blooded Tasmanian, is raped and stabbed to death by settlers. She is beheaded and her bones are taken to England. 51 Aborigines are left, they are blamed for their own demise, and moved to Oyster Cove Penal Colony. Camp Grant Massacre / Cavite Mutiny / Perak War (Malaysia) / Satsuma Revolt / 1878: Russo-Turkish War / Congress of Berlin / Treaty of San Stefano: Ottoman Empire defeat. Germany, Austro-Hungary, France, England, Italy, Russia decide the future of the Balkans, Bulgaria [King Alexander of Battenberg], Bosnia-Herzegovina [annexed from Serbia], Montenegro [Prince Nicholas], Romania [King Carol I: Karl Eitel Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen]. Cyprus given to England to protect the Suez Canal & sea lanes to India. Russia receives Bessarabia & Caucasus land. 1879: Ute Uprising / Meeker Massacre: Final Ute outbreak in Colorado. Chief Ouray stopped revolt after N. C. Meeker, an unpopular Indian agent of the government, had been killed. Gold Coast War: British raid Gold Coast, seize Nigeria, and war with the Ashanti. Zulu War. British annex Bantu tribeland of the Zulu and Matabele. Boers establish their Republic on Zulu Land Second Maori War: Maoris’ land is stolen from them and they are massacred. 208,000 die and their total number is reduced to 42,000. English raise salt prices and starve to death 16 million people in India. Beginning of Nihilism in Russia. Mexican Government legalises plantation slavery. Photographer Edweard Muybridge (Animals & Humans in Motion) hired [and later not paid] by California Governor Leland Stanford to win a bet with railroad tycoon Joseph Pullman that when a horse gallops all four feet leave the ground. Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India
1880-1901 AD
Land War: Tenants with the help of the Land League refuse to pay rent to land agent Captain Charles Boycott of County Mayo until a rent reduction is passed and boycott enters the English language. William Bence-Jones refuses to lower rents. A grave is dug outside the door and tenants siege the 10,000 acre estate. The Dragoons are called in and the family carry revolvers to church on Christmas. Viscount Mountmorres is asassinated. Gladstone passes The Coercion Bill making it illegal to refuse to work for or to boycott produce from English landlords. The Marquess of Clanricade’s evicted tenants war against the police. The land agent is shot dead on the way to church and his successor goes surrounded by an armed guard the like of which is not to be seen on this side of Texas. Mitchelstown Massacre: Tenants on Lady Kingston’s estate are shot dead by police at the courthouse after they are brought to trial for non-payment of rent. Phoenix Park Murders: Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli is stabbed to death, Gladstone is shot dead, and the British Cabinet is butchered by a squadron of heavily armed men. John Murdoch founds The Highlander: an t-àrd Albannach magazine. The Stone of Destiny is seized by Scottish Patriots and a Scottish flag is put in its place. Trespass Act & Game Laws: Highlanders stop a grain shipment and England sends in the Marines. Highlanders are read the Riot Act. They protest by squatting on land and stealing food. Royal Inquiry Commission set up up to investigate landlord complaints. Highland Land Law Reform Association set up to help Highlanders. Local Government Act passed to address complaints after Highlanders raid nobles’ hunting estates. Lord Bandon sets up the Cork Defence Union to protect himself from the Land League. Thousands of English are cleared from their houses to set up the British Railway system. They are left destitute. 1887: London’s Bloody Sunday / Victoria’s Golden Jubilee: Masses of unemployed riot in Trafalgar Square. Sir Charles Warren suppresses through military force and one man is killed. County Councils for the poor set up in Britain. Scotland Yard reveals drug use is escalating, It is a sad indicator for the times that those born into poverty would rather lose themselves in debauchery rather than pulling themselves up into civility and living decent lives.Gaelic League founded. 1897: Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee: 60 years reign. Those eating relief grain dying of gangrene and convulsions caused by contaminated spores in the wheat. Called Ergot (pron. UR guht) a parasitic fungus that attacks grasses Queen Victoria arrives in Ireland to recruit for the Boer War in 1900 and dies in 1901.
International: Iceland: The Pope declares pagan prophet Odinsson anathema, which says Christians may kill him on sight without it being considered a sin by the Church. He places Iceland under the Interdict. Second Riel Rebellion: Northwest Rebellion: Riel returns to aid the Natives of Saskatchewan. The British Army massacre the inhabitants and Riel is hung. USA Transcontinental Railroad: Portland is connected to San Francisco and becomes the economic center of the state. George Dorris establishes first commercial filbert nut orchard in Oregon. Hopi POWs jailed at Alcatraz. Berlin Conference: Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern II of Germany & Prussia [1859–1941], grandson of Queen Victoria, forms the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry a.k.a Kraeplin Institute, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics & Human Heredity & The Central Office for Fighting the Gypsy Nuisance in Munich. Alfred Dillmann collects fingerprints. The Kaiser withdraws troops from Italy, forms the Scandinavian Alliance and with 14 colonial powers partitions Africa. Franz Joseph I & Sissi Habsburgs’ son Prince Rudolph kills Baroness Marie Vetsera by beating her to death at the Mayerling Hunting Lodge in the Vienna Woods and commits suicide. Triple Alliance: Mandingo-French War: King Leopold II of Belgium hires the British Army to murder millions of Africans in the Belgian Congo in his quest for rubber. He seizes Chad. England seizes Nigeria. Germany seizes Tangayika and Zanzibar. Italy seizes Somalia and Ethiopeia. Boer War / Zulu Civil War: Zulu chief Cetewayo attacks and defeats the English. Boers try to undo British annexation and are exterminated in concentration camps. Sudanese War. British capture Sudan. Kitchener massacres the Sudanese with Maxim machine guns It is documented in Hilaire Belloc’s The Modern Traveller, Ugandan Religious Wars Kumasi, Kenya, & Uganda. Africans are dispossessed of their lands, forbidden to grow crops and forced into 999 year leases on plantations. The cultivated land is re-named The White Highlands. Samoan Civil War: Spanish-American War: Treaty of Paris: US troops under Nelson Miles & William Sampson receive Puerto Rico as war payment from Spain. Accords of Rotterdam signed by Generals Davchenko (Prussian Army: Warerbo-Bulgarian War), Joffre (Napoléon), Perez, and Hubris (Prussian Navy), and Bertrin Capel on behalf of the British government. Guatamalan War: French Panama Canal declares bankruptcy. Battle of Mona Passage: Pedro II of Brazil, who abolished slavery, is overthrown by planters [United Fruit Company, Frederick AdamsConquest of the Tropics,1914 ] with the help of the US Navy. May Laws: Jews expelled from Moscow and relocated to a ghetto called the Pale. Anti-Semitism becomes a word. Siberia is leased to Juan Fernandez von Moltke for personal projects. Dawes Roll Act: Natives register for 160 acres of land & anglicise their names. Government agents slip names onto rolls to reap millions of acres of land. Wounded Knee Massacre: Lakota killed for practicing the Ghost Dance. Venezuela Incident: US invades Nicaragua. 1894: Sino-French / Franco-Chinese War French Third Republic and Qing Empire for control of the Red River, that links Hanoi to the resource-wealthy Yunnan province in China. France re-seizes Vietnam and adds it to French-Indochina: Laos, Cambodia. 1894: Sino-Japanese War: Jiaw War: Korea’s Joseon Dynasty [1392-1910] the last as Japan takes over and China succeeds. Emperor Gojong of Korea forced to abdicate his throne. His son the Crown Prince Sunjong is moved to Japan. Empress Myongseong or Queen Min is stabbed and dismembered by Japanese mercenaries. Her descrated body is thrown into a fish pond and later burnt. Cheong’duk Palace in Seoul’s Memorial. Korea is looted and subjected to slave labor, prostitution, murder & torture. Journalism supressed. Treaty of Shimonoseki / Battle of Port Arthur: China cedes Taiwan and Lüshunkou: Port Arthur to Japan and Japan neutralizes the Russian naval fleet stationed there with torpedos. Torpedo bombing continues through to 1905 until the Russians agree to evacuate. 1897: Théâtre du Grand Guignol founded by Private Secretary to the Police Commissioner of Paris at 20 bis rue de Chaptal, Montmartre in the red-light district. A haven for tranche de mort: slice of death: realistic death, blood transfusion, infanticide, rape, naked women & torture scenes. 65 year run. During the theatre’s heyday, regular Guignoleurs include the King of Greece, Princess Wilhemina of Holland, King Carol of Rumania, the Sultan of Morocco’s children & Ho Chi Minh. Montmarte butchers deliver daily supplies of animal corpses. Oral legend claims cadavers used as well. Boxer Rising Peking. Chinese who escape to America are imprisoned at Angel Island. Empress Elizabeth ‘Sisi’ Hapsburg of Austria assassinated by an Italian anarchist. Italian King Victor Emmanuel III after assasination of Humbert I.

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