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Scottish History Timeline: 16th Century -19th Century
1603-1629 AD
Age of Enlightenment, Age of Reason: Aufklärung, Dawn of the Modern World: James VI (Stewart) becomes King James I of England after death of Elizabeth. Ethnic cleansing laws put into effect for next 300 years in Ireland and Scotland See Kingcraft or Pacification of the Highlands James murders his female cousin, beheads Sir Walter Raleigh, and tortures thousands on: the rack, bonecrusher, scavanger’s daughter (leg, hand and neck irons), root, cashie-laws, langirnis, wooden horse, narrow-bore, iron collar, bynebandes, bilboes (leg irons chained to a wall), thumbscrews, pear (knives into vagina), cat o’ nine tails (whip) and brake (teeth broken). Pressing to death is used up until 1726. James I authors the King James version of the Bible and establishs the Anglican or Epispocal Church in Scotland. Presbyterians are persecuted and records are destroyed. Guy Fawkes’ Gunpowder Plot fails.
International: English settle Maryland (granted as a private estate to Lord Baltimore: George Calvert, British Secretary of State), Maine (Bartholomew Gosnold), Massachusetts (Miles Standish: Plymouth Bay: Pilgrims give Thanksgiving for their massacre of native people in a published book in Amsterdam. Thomas Morton: Massachusetts Bay: rapes native women at his Merry Mount plantation), Connecticut (John Winthrop of the Royal Society), Delaware (Eastern Section: Lord De La Warr, rest New Sweden), Rhode Island (Dr John Clark), New Hampshire (John Lovell / Mary Corliss. Ceded to J. Mason, Governor of Hampshire), New York (Eastern Section: John Hudson: Hudson Bay colony eat each other to stay alive in ice storm, rest New Amsterdam), Virginia (Gov John White: London Company chartered to colonise Virginia with slaves. Powhatten [Waterfall] Confederation massacred on the ship God Speed. Matoaka-Pocahontas, daughter of chief Powhatten kidnapped, forced into marriage with Virginia tobacco planter John Rolfe, re-named Rebecca Rolfe, portrait painted at court of King James I, dies of smallpox), Saint Kitts, Nevis, Antigua & Barbados (all Sir Thomas Warner). Samuel de Champlain, Governor of la Nouvelle France: Canada, invades Québec & Nova Scotia under Henry IV & establishes feudal farming: the seignurial system. 1618-1648: Thirty Years’ War: Civil war between Protestants & Roman Catholics in central Europe’s Holy Roman Empire for territory. 1621: Compagnie des Marchands loses rights to la Nouvelle France: Canada to Compagnie de Montmorency. 1628: Cardinal Richelieu replaces Montmorency with the Compagnie des Cent-Associés: Company of One-Hundred Associates. Henri IV France assassinated by Ravaillac. Spain invades the Phillipines. Thomas Harriot dies of smoking related cancer of the nose & mouth in his English country residence. Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan Padshah, builds the Taj Mahal.
1633 -1660AD
Scots Guards founded by Charles I, James’ brother, to exterminate the Irish. (This regiment are now bodyguards for English royalty. They man armored cars.) 1638-1649: English Civil War: Charles I produces the Anglican Book of Common Prayer and is executed by Parliament. Cromwell’s Puritan Party outlaws Christmas. 1653-1658: The Ulster Plantation: Cromwell’s New Model Army massacre the Irish, sell the rest into slavery overseas, and force the Irish to move to Connacht in winter. Many die in the snow. Their wealth is given to the English. “It is a righteous judgement of God upon these barbarous wretches.” New Model Army Officer James Harrington’s The Commonwealth of Oceana, Daniel Pakeman & Livewell Chapman Edition, London : John Streater Printer, 1656, published with a dedication to Cromwell. Cromwell’s corpse is exhumed from the grave two years after his death, decapitated, and impaled on a spike on the roof of Westminster hall. It is estimated that he killed 2/3 of the population and only 500,000 Irish are left. Cromwell Tank is named after him Remington makes the New Model Army Conversion gun.
International: L’état, c’est moi: I am the state: Louis XIV’s army turns France into the most powerful nation-state in Europe & he builds the Palace of Versailles. The Huguenots flee to La Nouvelle France: New France with its capital at Québec, Canada & modern French textbooks teach they are all dead. 1635: Compagnie des îles de l’Amerique seizes Guadeloupe, Martinique, & Santa Lucia. 1637: Pequot War: Massachusetts Bay Plymouth Colony under Captain John Endicott massacre the Rhode Island Narangansette. Women & children sold as slaves in the West Indies, their houses & corn burnt. Governor William Bradford & Colonal Mason of the Connecticut Militia burn the Siwanog: White Water Swan People-Pequot alive in their homes & sell the survivors into slavery in Bermuda. Eerie enslaved. 1638: British privateers invade the Mosquito coast [modern Nicaragua] & massacre the people. Mayan Annals of Cakchiquel, Chilam Balam. Quiché Maya Popal Vuh written in Roman characters. 1644: Ming: Bright Dynasty ends, Manchu people of Manchuria establish the Qing: Pure Dynasty ruling until 1912. 1648: Siglo de Oro: Golden Century ends when the Netherlands gets independance from Spain. Danish-Swedish War (1657-1660): Only pressure from England, France, & the Netherlands prevented Sweden from dividing Denmark itself. 1659-1664: Dutch kill Esopus Delaware a.k.a Munsee Lenni Lenape who retaliate & attack Dutch settlements in Esopus Valley. Peter Stuyvesant (1610-1672: pronounced STY vih suhnt), the last New Netherlands Governor & Dutch West Indies Governor: Curaco, Aruba, & Bonair fights the Metoac on Long Island, arrives with 200 men & sell Munsee to sugar plantations on Curacao. 1662: Stuyvesant receives orders to exterminate them, settling on his bouwerij: farm, New York City’s Bowery after English takeover. Willhelm Shickard’s letters to Johannes Kepler, court mathematician to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, contain instructions for using his calculating clock to calculate astronomical tables and for adding and subtracting 6 digit numbers. Dominican Father Caccini preaches ‘geometry is of the devil,’ and that ‘mathematicians should be banished as the authors of all heresies.’ In 1633 Galileo Galilei, discoverer of Jupiter’s 4 largest moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto is put on trial by the Inquistion for teaching the heliocentric theory [Copernicus’s On The Revolution: planets revolve around the Sun], tortured, and sentenced to life imprisonment. His books are blacklisted until 1822.
1660 -1685 AD
Charles II regains throne, and it is called The Restoration. This is considered the time of Merry Olde England. He receives Bombay from Portugal as a marriage settlement, seizes Jamaica, starts the Royal African Slave Company, dissolves Parliament and introduces the Test Act of 1673 / Clarendon Code barring non-Anglicans from civil and military employment. 1662: An Act for the better Relief of the Poor [the Settlement Act] (13&14 Car. II c.12) can remove newcomers whom local justices deem likely to be chargeable; to the parish poor rates. Qualifying for settlement in a new parish is by being in continuous employment for at least a year. To prevent this, hirings were often for a period of 364 days rather than a full year. The Great Plague hits and kills 1/3 of the population. It is considered the first modern form of germ warfare. Ring Around the Rosie (red sores of the plague) Pocket full of Posie (protection, burial flowers) Ashes, Ashes (the dead were burnt) We All Fall Down. (succumbing to the disease) Act of Uniformity / The Killing Time: Covenanters (Presbyterians) refuse to accept the divine right of Kings and are executed, killed without process of law, and exiled for their faith. Charles II dies of a stroke. His son, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, is beheaded by his uncle James II on Tower Hill. James II becomes king of England
International: Scheyichbi seized by Sir George Carteret and renamed New Jersey. Witch-torturer Increase Mather moves from Magherafelt, Ireland in 1656 to Boston to become the Commonwealth Minister for the State of Massachusetts and executioner. Christmas is outlawed until 1850. The English Goose Creek Men / Free Society of Traders / Council for Foreign Plantations, Edward Hyde, the Earl of Claredon; George Monck, the Duke of Albemarle, John Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, Anthony Cooper Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury (who directed Philosopher John Locke in writing South Carolina’s Fundamental Constitutions), William Penn (Coaquanock renamed Philadelphia), load Indians on ships in Charleston for the middle passage to the West Indies, New Amsterdam & New England. Caymanas & Vere revolt. Viceroy Marqués de Mancera requests the collaboration of the Inquisition in 1660 to suppress slave insurrectionary moves. 1664: Second Treaty of Breda: Third Dutch War: King Phillip’s War: New Amsterdam renamed New York. Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag: People of the Dawn attack Swansea, Massachusetts after colonists mistreat his two sons Alexander (Wamsutta) & Philip (Metacomet). Hundreds massacred. Colonists capture Philip’s wife & son into slavery. Philip hunted down & killed in 1676. New England Algonquin forced out. In Jamaica a reward is offered for Juan de Serras, leader of one of the free settlements. Louis XIV: Martial law is declared in Barbados, Haiti & Santo Domingo. Filles de roi: Women of the King & indentured servants, known as engagés, sent to New France. 1682: Treaty at Shackamaxon: Lenape Chief Tammanend’s land seized by English King Charles II & Slave Trader William Penn. William Penn Constitution.
1685 -1702 AD
James II appoints Judge Jeffries to preside over the Bloody Assizes, the execution, torture, and slavery of Protestant rebels loyal to James Scott. 320 are executed after having pled guilty under a promise of mercy. The hangman, Jack Ketch, still remains a haunting figure in the history of our language. (23) Glorious Revolution: Mary II seizes power by having her father James II deposed by her husband & first cousin William III of Orange in 1689. James II flees to France with wife Mary of Modena & son James Francis Edward Stuart. William III murders the Scottish nobles in the Glencoe Massacre after they refuse allegiance to the Crown of England and starves the rest. War of the Grand Alliance: Kew Letters order the Dutch (Batavian Republic under Louis XIV French dominion) to surrender to the English. 1692: Duke of Brunswick who lives in Hanover, Germany named hereditary Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. 1694: Mary dies of smallpox & William dies in a riding accident Mary’s sister Anne takes the throne. The Settlement Act of 1701 grants Parliament the right to name the crown successor. By virtue of being a granddaughter of James I, Electress Sophia of Brunswick was in the line of succession to the British throne. Parliament designates her & her descent as the royal family of the United Kingdom. Court Mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz, inventor of the binary system & Stepped Reckoner Calculating Machine: calculus ratiocinator shown at the Royal Society in 1673 & believed by many to have calculated & killed the Irish, writes a history of the Brunswick House. ’The House of Hohenzollern is a family dynasty of electors, kings, & emperors of Prussia, Germany, & Romania. It originated in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century. They took their name from their ancestral home, the Burg Hohenzollern castle near the forementioned town. The family uses the motto Nihil sine Deo: Nothing without God. The family split into 3 branches, the Catholic, Swabian & Protestant Franconian. The Swabian branch ruled the area of Hechingen until their eventual extinction in 1869. The Franconian branch was comparatively more successful. Branches of the Franconian line ascended the throne of Brandenburg in 1415 & of Ducal Prussia in 1525. The union of these two Franconian lines in 1618 allowed the creation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, the state which led the Unification of Germany & the creation of the German Empire in 1871. ’ – Wikipedia
[Increase Mather President of Harvard]
Cases of Conscience... by Increase Mather, President of Harvard College at Cambridge, & Teacher of a Church at Boston in New-England. © 1693.
International: 1685: Edict of Fontainebleau / Spielvogel: Louis XIV & wife Mme de Maintenon order the destruction of Huguenot churches & closing of Protestant schools in France. 500,000+ seek asylum in England, the United Provinces, Denmark, Germany & the United States. The confessor is François de la Chaise. Their silk, plate glass, silversmithing, cabinet-making industries are relocated. Cotton Mather of the Salem Witch Trials publishes Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft a.k.a Magnalia Christi at Boston in 1689. In it is an excerpt of an Irish woman who he condemns to death in English court. He admits she knows no English. Mather sells Deer Island to millionaire John Jacob Aster’s fur merchant Jacques Cartier. 1689-1696: War of Augsburg / King William’s War / Treaty of Utrecht: establishes Britain’s commercial & maritime ascendancy over other Imperial nations. British Carribean imports 20,000 slaves a year. Liverpool a huge slave port. Sir Anthony Astley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury becomes obsessd with climbing mountain ranges, calling it sublime: latin high exalted, a quality of transcendent greatness. Spanish Jesuits build missions in Baja California & enslave the natives. The Commanche & Apache destroy them. José de Baños y Sotomayor, comisario of Guatemala’s Inquisition writes the Mexican Office of the Inquisition in 1695 of mujersillas de mal vivir: worthless women who live evil lives. M. de Saint Alban of the Parliament of Toulouse discovers that his wife, who he’d interred, has survived her premature burial. England invades India & destroys the Mughal Empire.
Union of the Crowns: Ireland, Cornwall, Scotland, and Wales now part of England and known as Great Britain. Scottish parliament disbanded under  Bill of Security. Bread Riots: Queen Anne dies of suppressed gout and scarlet fever in 1714. The crown passes to the House of Hannover. The coronation of her cousin Georg Ludwig von Brunswick (George I) from Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover begins in 1714. Scots revolt and General Wade sent to the Highlands to maintain control. George I imprisons his wife & first cousin Sophia Dorothea of Celle in Castle Ahlden’s oubliette until she dies. The Earl of Euston verbally abuses his fiancée, Lady Dorothy Boyle. They marry and his wife is found dead seven months later. Sir Edward Knatchbull’s Act of 1723 For Amending the Laws relating to the Settlement, Employment and Relief of the Poor (9 Geo. I c.7) allows concentration camp workhouses to merge, purchase real-estate, and to contract labor to autonomous corporations. This is called farming the poor.
International: Indian Wars: Sir William Johnson is British Superintendant of US Indian Affairs. He pays commissions to wealthy Englishmen for Indian slaves. By 1708 the number of Indian slaves in the Carolinas is nearly half that of African slaves. 1701-1714: Bavarian War / War of Spanish Succession / Queen Anne’s War: Spanish King Charles II dies. Philip of Anjou named heir. Grand Alliance: England [Duke of Marlborough], Netherlands [Imperial General Prince Eugene of Savoy], Prussia [King Frederick William I], Austria [Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I] try to put the Austrian Archduke Charles on the throne. 1702: Czar Peter I: builds Petrograd: St. Petersburg. His regent, half-sister Sophia, has his uncles murdered in Moscow. 1711: The Roman Emperor dies, succeeded by his brother, Austrian Archduke Charles. 1713: Treaty of Utrecht: Philip recognized as king of Spain on the condition that Spain & France never be united. Florida invaded by British troops but remains Spanish under the final settlement. The South Sea Bubble: Jacob Roggeveen lands on the Polynesian island te pito ote henua The Navel of the World on Easter Sunday, renames it Easter Island, massacres the inhabitants, and sell others into slavery to sugarcane plantations in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaiian Islands, Mexico and other places. 1700 -1721: Great Northern War: Triple Alliance King Frederick William I of Prussia a.k.a Augustus II Wettin of Poland & Saxony, Czar Peter I of Russia & Frederick IV of Denmark battle Charles II of Sweden over control of Estonia, Livonia [Latvia], Karelia [Finland] & the Baltic Waterways. Denmark looking for the return of its lands lost to Sweden 38 years ago. Russia invades Sweden & conducts biological germ warfare by flinging plague-infected corpses over the city walls of Reval. Augustus II wins Livonia & orders all Gypsies over 18 years of age to be hanged & hunted for sport. Documented through 1835. His father bans Jews from living in Dresden. Twenty refugee families from Alsace, Palatinate & Hesse transported to Virginia for indentured service under Governor Spotswood. Those who obtain their freedom move to Blue Mountain in what is now Madison County, Virginia. 1719: South Sea Company convert £ 30,981,712 of the British national debt. Russia invades Armenia & shares the Trans-Causacus area with the Turks. Maroon Wars: Windwood Maroons led by Nanny, the African Queen. Leeward Maroons lead by Cudjoe. They free slaves in Jamaica. Nanny makes a vow on Pumpkin Hill in 1737 to fight the British to the death. When she signs the treaty she is wearing their dead teeth.
The Bloody Code: 250 capital statutes. Waltham Black Acts adds 50 capital offenses to the penal code. People are sentenced to death for theft & poaching. 50,000+ prisoners sent as convict laborers to plantations in New England, Virginia & Maryland. Rapid growth of gin drinking begins in England after taxes on tea, coffee, and chocolate. Sir Arthur Guinness of Beamont receives a loan from the Archbishop of Cashel and starts an alcohol distillery in Leixip, Kildare, Ireland. 1727: Georg Augustus II von Brunswick crowned King of England & Ireland with his wife Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ausbach. 1730: First Irish famine. 1740 / 1741: The Forgotten Famine: 400,000 starved to death in Ireland alone. [Further Famines 1745, 1755, 1766, 1783, and 1800]. 1742: Edinburgh Riots: Surgeons homes attacked in protest of the selling of corpses for medical dissection. The home of a beadle, dubbed resurrectionist hall destroyed by fire. Battle of Culloden: Highlanders massacred and survivors sold into slavery in Barbados £ 5 is paid for the head of each man. George II’s son, Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland chosen as the “Final Solution” to the Scottish problem. His nickname is  The Butcher.
International: 1731: Emigrationspatent: Edict of Expulsion Archbishop Count Leopold von Firmian of Salzburg states that all Protestants recant their non-Catholic beliefs or be banished. This is the archdiocese responsible for Bavaria. 21,475+ move in winter to East Prussia: Lithuania, Poland, Kalingrad, Berlin, Banat Romania, Slovakia, Hannover, the Netherlands, London [they are sent in coffin ships to colony of Georgia in the US founded in 1733] – Goethe: Hermann & Dorothea. 1733-1738:War of the Polish Succession: Polish noblemen elect Stanislas Leszczynski, father-in-law of King Louis XV of France, king of Poland. Russia & Austria force Elector Augustus of Saxony as King after a war. 1740-1748: War of Austrian Succession / King George’s War: Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Hapsburg dies. Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, France, Spain, Sardinia fight over his territories. British blockade Canada, cut the supply of French trade goods, kill the Munsee & seize Ohio.
Highland Clearances:  Highlanders killed and replaced with sheep farming. They are starved, shot, and die in the snow. The killers take Highland tartans and outfit the British Army with them: The Black Watch, Queen’s Own Highlanders (forced Highland men to join or starve), Gordon Highlanders (founded by Baron Gordon in 1787 to dispose of Highland Scots who were living on his land: Gordon Riots), Princess Louise’s Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders (began in 1753 to exterminate Highland Scots, Siege of Limerick), Louvat Scouts / Scottish Horse / Royal Scots Greys / Scottish Rifles (founded by a soldier of fortune. now man armored cars.), Royal Highland Fusiliers / the 73rd Regiment (raised for the American Revolution). Baronet Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto, treasurer of the navy, Encyclopaedia Britannica editor, and author of Philosophy of the Human Mind, writes the song My sheep I neglected and wins a seat in Parliament. King Georg II dies of a stroke in 1760 and is succeeded by Queen Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and his grandson, King Georg Wilhelm Friedrich III, eldest son of Friedrich Ludwig and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha who both died in 1751. King Georg III’s sister Caroline is Queen of Denmark & Norway. 1770: Prime Minister Frederick North, 2 Earl of Guileford. A preserved 18th century door on display in Edinburgh Castle shows a hangman’s scaffold labelled Lord Nord carved by a prisoner captured during the American Revolutionary War. Thomas Gilbert’s Act: For the Better Relief and Employment of the Poor (22 Geo. III c.83) allows workhouse incorporation.
International: Haitian Revolt: Mackendal plots to poison every watering hole in the capitol, kill all the whites and take over the island. He is burnt alive. Bengal Famine: England acquires Dutch East India Company, invades Canada (French Acadians deported to penal colonies in the Falklands & Louisiana. Others flee to the St. Lawrence Valley & Upper Great Lakes), Sénégal, Grenada, Gambia, the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, Tahiti, Java (coffee & teak), Bengal [Maratha War], & Sumatra. They capture King Nawab of Bengal & starve the people. Tsar invades the northern artic of Siberia & subjugates the Chukchis, Ewenis, Tungusis & Yakutis. 1755: Lisbon Earthquake / Távora Affair: Earthquake & tsunami strike on All Saints Day. Távora family executed for attempted murder of King Joseph I of Portugal under Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquêz (Marquis) of Pombal. Seismology becomes a science. Seven Year’s War / French-Indian War / Peace of Paris: 1756-1763: 1755: English general Edward Braddock seizes Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) from the French. 20-year-old Daniel Boone drove supply wagon. 1756: Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa Hapsburg of Austria battles Frederick II of Prussia for Silesia & loses. March 28, 1757: Damiens stabs King Louis XV & is slowly put to death in the Place de Grève. His tortures are witnessed by thousands. Treaty of Paris: France surrenders territories in the New World to Spain & England. England takes Canada, Florida, New England, Belize, Carribean and lands west of the Mississippi. Laws are passed legalizing bounty hunting of natives. The British Army, English aristocrats, and United Empire Loyalists form professional scalp hunting parties known as ranger units.Royal Scots Greys, Carolina Rangers & British Light Infantry massacre the Cherokee Nation, burn their houses, and force them to give their land up. Lord Jeffrey Amhearst gives towels with smallpox. Spain sends José de Galvez, Juan Bautista de Ayala, Quiros, Father Junipero Serra to enslave California. Croix and his Spaniards massacred in Arizona. 1763: Ottawa chief Pontiac leads an uprising in the spring. The Proclamation of 1763 issued by King Georg III. 1763: Sadism: Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (1740-1814), the Marquis de Sade, born in the Condé Palace in Paris, marries Renée-Pelagie de Montreuil, daughter of a rich magistrate. He abuses his wife’s sister, young prostitutes & employees of both sexes. His philosophy-laden & violent pornographic written works called sadism. 1765: Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, Maria Teresa’s oldest son, divides Poland between Russia & Prussia. Maria Teresa seizes Bukovina from Turkey, dying in 1780. 1769-1779: Captain James Cook seizes Tahiti (1769), New Zealand (1770), Australia (1770: Botany Bay), exterminates the native moa bird, Cook Islands (1773), New Caledonia (1774), the Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands), and claims them for England. He completely burns the forests of Kangaroo Island. The Hawaiians kill him 1774: Lord Dunmore’s War: Cresap’s War: Point Pleasant, West Virginia: English invade southern Ohio River Valley killing the Lenni Lenape-Delaware, Wyandot, Shawnee, & the Cayuga Iroquois. 1775: Daniel Boone & brother Squire of North Carolina Judge Richard Henderson’s Transylvania Company buy a tract of land from the Cherokee, clear the Wilderness Road area named Kentucky: The Dark & Bloody Ground. 1775-1783: American Revolution: The first millionaires in America come by their fortunes through pirating. The Declaration of Independance lists grievances against King Georg III. General Francis Marion uses guerilla warfare against English. 1776: Sir Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805) first Marquis Cornwallis captures New York & pursues General George Washington across New Jersey. 1778: Shawnee under Blackfish ambush Kentucky militia at Blue Licks. Prisoners of War sold to the English at Detroit. 1780: Cornwallis’ Southern Campaign: Invades North Carolina. Oct 19, 1781: Cornwallis surrenders his troops at Yorktown, Va. to French fleet & American troops. George Washington’s Hannah schooner first armed vessel of the Continental Navy. French East Company: Le Duc du Duras a.k.a Bonhomme Richard after American representative in France Dr Benjamin Franklin, Pallas 32, Vengeance 12, Cerf, warship Alliance 32 under French Minister of Marine M. de Sartine added to make a squadron under the American flag, with John Paul Jones in command. France: 1777: De Sade imprisoned in the dungeon of Vincennes with erotic writer Comte de Mirabeau. After an escape attempt, de Sade transferred to the Bastille in Paris. 1778-1779: War of Bavarian Succession / Potato War: Elector of Bavaria Maximilian Joseph dies without heirs. Austria claims Bavaria & sends in soldiers, who search for food in the fields, against Frederick the Great of Prussia and win. Czarina Catherine II mediates the Treaty of Teschen.
1785: Treaty of Greenville, Ohio: Kickapoo tribe moved to reservations in Kansas, Oklahoma. 1786: Treaty of Fort Finney / Northwest Ordinance: Northwest Territory: Ohio [Shawnee women & children murdered by Indian Agent Richard Butler. Survivors forced to sign away their Ohio lands.], Indiana [Chief Meshekinoquah: Little Turtle (1752-1812) of the Miami defeats a federal mercenary army. Mouths of the dead are filled with earth, a reply to the American hunger for Indian land. Washington sends Maj. Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne and his Legion. They are wiped out by Little Turtle], Illinois [Illinois], Michigan [Governor William Hull land seizure of Ottawa, Wiandot] & Wisconsin: Gathering of Waters [Winnebago, Menominee, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Fox & Sauk]. Javanese Revolt: Javanese are enslaved, dispossesed of their land, and taxed. British kill 90 percent of the Tahitians of Polynesia and reduce their number to 6000.
1788-1804 AD
Act of William The poor are made to wear badges. Sir William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, is known as The Reaper Man Risdon Massacre: British establish Penal Colony on Australia, deport 166,000, and name it New South Wales. Dolben Act of 1788, the first slave carrying act, regulates the slave trade. Transportation sentences are for: 7 years, 10 years, 14 years and life. Aborigines are shot dead by Lieutenant Moore. Drunken army doctors collect the bones, salt them, and send them back to England. Aborigines called black crowes, black vermin and are hunted for sport. Their bodies are fed to dogs. 1788: Rex v. Lynn: Lynn sentenced for disinterring a corpse for purposes of dissection. As English common law does not allow the body to have a property value the offense could not be construed as a theft, therefore provision was made to define it as a common misdemeanor. 1789: The Floating Brothel: Lady Juliana sails with 225 convict women of solid breeding stock from London to Sydney. Run by slave traders, the women are shackled in steerage, raped by the 35 seamen on board ship & other ship crews. 7 babies are born. One Scottish woman dies. 1790: Southbridge Vaults in Edinburgh the underground home of the poor, criminals & bodysnatchers. 1795: The Famine Year in Scotland and England. Thousands of starving English riot. On Oct. 26,1795 a Remonstrance is addressed to King Georg III asking: “Wherefore, in the midst of apparent plenty, are we compelled to starve?” Three days later 200,000 Londoners riot parliament shouting: “No war! No king! Peace!” The Treasonable Practices Bill is passed banning the writing of Thomas Paine’s The Rights of Man and making rioting punishable by death. Speenhamland Act: Parish responsible for subsistence level wages. Catholic priests are no longer hunted for sport and their severed heads are not paid the £ 5 wage anymore. Combination Acts: Forbids workers from joining trade unions. Lord Cornwallis, Viceroy of India from 1786 to 1793 & 1805 becomes Lord lieutenant & commander in chief of Ireland from 1798 to 1801. Irish Rebellion:100,000 peasants revolt; approximately 25,000 die. Robert Emmett issues a Proclamation of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic on June 23 1803. The Prime Minister, Lord Kilwarden, and his son-in-law, Rev. Richard Wolfe, are dragged from their carriage and killed. The Lord Mayor of Dublin imposes curfew (9pm to 6am) on the city on August 21 1803. He orders inhabitants post their names on doorways. Robert Emmet is arrested, hung, and decapitated on September 20 1803. Prime Minister Spencer Perceval assasinated by John Bellingham
International: 1788: Outraged citizens of New York City riot over corpse-stealing and ransack the rooms of anatomy students and professors at Columbia College Medical School. The following year body snatching is prohibited by law. Whiskey Rebellion Washington sends Alexander Hamilton to put down the farmer’s rebellion in Western Pennsylvania. 1788: Denmark frees serfs.
French Revolution / Epopee / War of the Oranges / Great French War: 1789-1799: Marriage of Figaro opens at Versailles. First public art show at Tuileries Palace. Father Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes (pron. syay YEHS: 1748-1836) publishes a pamphlet What Is the Third Estate? attacking the privileges of the nobility. Current French law had 3 classes. First estate: clergy: no taxes, Second estate: nobles: no taxes, Everyone else: third: taxable. Estates-General at Versailles Palace discuss bankruptcy from the American Revolution & the Seven Years War with a taxation-borrowing plan. Louis XVI gathers troops when Third Estate declares themselves the National Assembly of France. July 13, 1789: Camille Desmoulins & a mob of Parisians storm the Bastille. Abbe Sieyes serves in several of a series of elected national legislatures: Estates-General, National Assembly, National Convention. La Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen: The Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen abolishes feudal dues & tax advantages. The royal family moves to the Tuileries Palace a.k.a The Louvre in October after a hungry Parisian crowd storms Versailles. 1790: National Assembly declares France a limited monarchy with a one-house legislature divided into 83 regions called départments with local governments. Roman Catholic Church property seized, monasteries & convents closed, sold to pay the national debt. Queen Marie Antoinette seeks military aid from her brother Leopold II of Austria. The Marquis de Sade is elected to the National Convention, where he represented the far left. 1791: September: Girondists (pron. juh RAHN dihsts: from the Gironde district) establish a federal republic with Bishop Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, Prince de Benevent. as President. 1792: Austrian Duke of Brunswick declares war on France & invades Lille against Lafayette, Rochambeau, Lückner. Royal Swiss guards killed. Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette imprisoned. Jean-Paul Marat (pron zhahn pawl mah rah) calls for death for all royalist supporters. September: Marat is elected to the National Convention & joins the Jacobins (Church of St. Jacques: Paris) who demand the king’s execution. In the Convention, they were known as the Mountain because they sat on the high benches at the rear of the hall. The majority of the deputies in the Convention, known as the Plain, sat between the Mountain & the Girondists. Battle of Valmy: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg invades France from Cologne. Duke of York’s armies invade France from Coburg. General Dampierre, a ci-devant noble, lost his life in leading a storming party, & his men retired to Valenciennes. Conde seiged by the British & Hanoverians. People are starving. 1793: Aristocrat Charlotte Corday assassinates Jean-Paul Marat for the good of the country His stabbed body in the bathtub painted by Jacques Louis David. The Marquis de Sade writes Marat’s eulogy & the pamphlet Frenchmen! One More Effort If You Wish To Be Republicans! He states that laws against theft are absurd: they protect the original thieves, the wealthy, against the poor who have no option left but theft. Bertrand Barère (1755–1841), an advocate of Toulouse, is The Anacreon of the Guillotine [Joseph Ignace Guillotin: 1738-1814]. He is president of the Convention, a member of the Constitutional Committee of Public Safety [responsible for martial law: Maximilien Robespierre, George-Jacques Danton, Lazare Carnot], & chief agent in the condemnation to death of Louis XVI. He decrees that Terror must be the order of the day. In the first empire Barère bore no public part, but at the restoration he was banished from France, & retired to Brussels. Madame Tussaud makes death masks of guillotine victims during La Terreur: Reign of Terror & later moves to open London’s Wax Museum. Tumbrels: two-wheeled carts carry 18,000+ to the guillotine: Corday, Marie Antoinette, Girondists, General Custine, La Marliere & Houchard. 1794: Battle at Dunkirk: Sieged twice by the Prince of Orange. Lyon, Toulon, Landrecies sieged. Lazare Hoche fights Duke of Brunswick in Alsace. Pichegru recaptures Mainz. Battles of Tourscoing & Tournai called the Annihilation Plan by the British under von dem Bussche fail. Battle of Fleurus: Jourdan’s Moselle French Army at Arlon drive Beaulieu’s Austrian Corps to Charleroi fortress. Army of Ardennes defend Beaumont, Givet & Guise from Kaunitz, then siege Charleroi. Prince of Orange attacks at earliest dawn, drives French left wing to Courcelles, Roux, Marchiennes. Villages, farms, fields burnt. Austria evacuates the Netherlands. Pichegru pursues the duke of York’s forces through Flanders, they retreat. Some are shipped home, others escape through Holland into Hanover, leaving the Dutch troops to surrender to the victors. 1795: Five-man Directory rules France: Vicomte Paul de Barras, Minister of Foreign Affairs: Bishop Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord. 1796: Napoleon marries widow Josephine de Beauharnais. Her husband Vicomte Alexandre had been guillotined. France vs Germany in Neckar. Bonaparte’s Army of the Alps invades Tirol. Archduke Charles of Germany retreats into Bohemia. Peace with Spain releases the Pyrenees Armies. Army of Italy takes over Lombardy, Sardinia, Pavia-Milan-Pizzighetone, Massena, Mantua, Verona, Vicenza, Genoa, Piedmont held by the Austrians. 1797: Napoleon’s final victory in Vienna. October: Treaty of Campoformi. 1798: Napolean goes through Malta to Egypt to destroy English trade with the Middle East. He defeats the Mamelukes, Egypt’s military rulers, in the Battle of the Pyramids near Cairo. Lord Horatio Nelson destroys his fleet at the Battle of the Nile. Turkish army tries to expell him. Ottoman Empire declares war on France. 1799: Napoleon’s troops invade Ottoman Syria, advance as far as the fortress Acre (now Akko, Israel), retreats to Egypt, where he defeats the Ottomans at Abu Qir. Abbe Sieyes elected to the five-man Directory & engineers a coup d’etat Brumaire bringing Napoleon Bonaparte to power. Napoleon invades Italy, defeating Austrian troops there. Treaty of Luneville, reaffirms the Treaty of Campoformio.
1792: Saint Dominique Slave Rebellion : Captain Robert Gray invades the Columbia River; staking an American claim to the Oregon territory. Lord Ralph Abercrombie invades Puerto Rico. British massacre blacks on Santo Domingo. Jamaican marpons (descendents of fugitive slaves living in the mountains) revolt. White planters are massacred & their plantations are burnt. Toussaint l’Ouverture brings English to their knees with the help of American supplies and forces a withdrawal. Toussaint is captured, but French forces die of yellow fever and finally surrender in 1803. Haiti wins its independance and is partitoned between Pétion and Christophe le negro.
1800-1815: Napoleonic Wars / Industrial Revolution: 1800: Napoleon Bonaparte, head of the French government after 1799 & emperor after 1804, the master of continental Europe. Spain cedes the Louisiana Territory. Napoleon sells it to raise money for the war against England. 1801: Napoleon Bonaparte orders the Marquis de Sade interned without trial in Bicetre. 1803: France annexes Piedmont into Italian Republic. De Sade transfered to Charenton Asylum where he rapes the twelve-year-old Madeleine Leclerc, dies & is buried onsite. His oldest son burns all his unpublished manuscripts. Julian Fedon fights against British slavery in Grenada. 38 leaders of the rebellion executed but Fedon escapes. Jamaican maroons transported to Sierra Leone where English diamond mines are. St Vincent Carib leader, Chatoyer killed in battle. Caribs deported to the mainland of Central America. Their descendants are now known as the Garafuni & make up about 8% of the population of Belize. Australian Rum Rebellion, Jannisaries’ Revolt / Indian Campaign / Guanajuato Massacre: Thomas Jefferson buys the Louisiana territory and sends Meriwether Lewis & William Clark up the Missouri river with the Indian slave woman Sacajawea wife of the trapper Chaboneu to visit the Mandans. William Clark (of Lewis & Clark) becomes Superintendant of US Indian Affairs and battles rebel Indian forces. Lewis is rumored to have commited suicide.
1805-1813 AD
Luddite Uprisings:Price increases bankrupt small farmers, create record numbers of unemployment and cause them to become landless laborers. Workmen in the Midlands fight mechanisation of textile production by destroying the new machinery and ruining cloth on the looms by squirting vitriol through factory windows. Manchester Exchange Riot: Women riot over high prices for potatoes. Four are hanged for stealing food. Huddersfield’s Mill is attacked and the owner is killed. Emmanuel Burton’s guards kill three and his home is burnt to the ground. Wray and Duncroff Mill and Rochdale’s jail are burnt. 12 are hanged with information obtained by spies hired by local magistrate Colonal Fletcher. Seventeen Luddites are hanged at York despite pleas for leniency. March 1808: Spring Assizes: Carnmoney Witch Trial: Mary Butters imprisoned by Lord Carrigfergus for killing three people with herbalism. London borough gang supplies four hundred cadavers to medical schools during the term of 1811 to 1812. Seven pounds is paid for each dead adult corpse. “Smalls”, children, sold by the foot. Dentists use the teeth for dentures for the rich.
International: British Guiana Slave Revolt. 50 involuntary slave recruits of the 2nd. west India Regiment mutiny killing two officers. Bogóta Revolts:Argentina wins its independance and the Spanish empire collapses. Puerto Rico revolts and so does Brazil. Treaty of Fort Wayne: Delaware, Miamis, and Pottawatomies sign a treaty with Governor Harrison ceding over 3,000,000 acres of Indiana and Illinois to the government. Tecumseh and Tensquatawa denounce the treaty, threaten the chiefs that signed it with death. Tecumseh is murdered by USA Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson. Colter’s Indian Run: Blackfeet capture Colter and Potts on the headwaters of the Missouri near Saint Louis. Potts shoots one dead and is pierced with arrows. Colter escapes to Little Big Horn.
1800-1815: Napoleonic Wars / Industrial Revolution: 1805: Battle of Trafalgar Napoleon invades England, navy destroyed in English Channel. French & Spanish fleets on Spain’s coast demolished by English Lord Nelson. Austrian & Russian armies demolished at Austerlitz. 1806: Berlin Decree / End of the First Reich: Das Heiliges Römisches Reich Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicates, following a military defeat by the French Army at Jena & Auerstedt. Joseph Bonaparte king of Naples, Louis Bonaparte king of Holland. Berlin Decree bars British ships from ports under French control. United States Congress passes Non-Importation Act, barring English goods from American markets. 1807: Peace of Tilsit / Milan Decree: Jerome Bonaparte king of Westphalia. Milan Decree: Prevents ships of neutral nations from carrying British goods to continental Europe. System for blocking British trade known as the Continental System. Portugal refuses the Berlin Decree. Hundreds of English sailors desert the navy. England’s Privy Council issues a series of Orders in Council declaring a blockade of French ports, the right to stop neutral ships on the high seas, remove sailors of British birth, & impress, or force, them back into British naval service. United States objects as many native-born Americans impressed by mistake. Leopard fires on Captain James Barron’s Chesapeake frigate, removes four men, & hanged one. President Thomas Jefferson orders all British naval vessels out of American harbors & declares an embargo. 1808: Penninsular War: France seizes Portugal. Marshal Joachim Murat’s French forces seize Madrid. Napoleon removes Spanish King Ferdinand VII & appoints his brother Joseph. Murat takes Joseph’s place as king of Naples. British Forces vs 3 million French Army. Industrial Revolution mass-produces the weapons. 1809: Battle of the Baltic / Battle of Copenhagen: Lord Nelson & Admiral Parker bombard Copenhagen; destroying 18 out of 23 Danish ships. Austrians defeated at Wagram, near Vienna. Napoleon’s sister Elisa given Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Illyrian Provinces annexed. 1810: Napoleon’s brother-in-law Felix Bacciochi given Lucca & Piombino, Eugène de Beauharnais, son of Joséphine given Italy. Holland, much of Germany annexed. Napoleon divorces Josephine to marry 18-year-old Archduchess Marie Louise, daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria. Dec. 31: Czar Alexander I of Russia withdraws from Continental System. Napoleon conscripts 600,000 men to attack Russia. War of 1812 (Second War of American Independence) Cromwell’s New Model Army or the A Battery of the English Royal Dragoon Guards is renamed the West Florida Dragoons & set out for Baton Rouge, Louisiana. They capture it, imprison the Governor and on September 23, 1810 raise their Bonnie Blue flag over the Fort of Baton Rouge. The flag is used by the Republic of Texas from 1836 to 1839. Three days later the president of the West Florida Convention, signs a Declaration of Independence & the flag becomes the emblem of a new republic. By December 10, the flag of the United States of America replaces the Bonnie Blue after President Madison issues a proclamation declaring West Florida under the jurisdiction of the Governor of the Louisiana Territory. The following states seceed from the Union: South Carolina, Alabama [Mobile Alabama Rifles: Joseph Skinner], Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Texas, Louisiana 1811: Napoleon’s son Napoleon, king of Rome. 1812: Napoleonic Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) / Second Polish War: Napoleon’s army crosses Neman River into Russia. Russians withdraw at Borodino. French army enter deserted Moscow burnt to the ground under Governor Prince Rasotpchin, Berezina River in Russian Winter: 500,000 soldiers die of starvation, exposure. 1812: Battle of Lyngør: England finishes off the last Danish battleship - a frigate. Land Campaign of 1812: USA’s three-way invasion of Canada: Detroit, Niagara River, Lake Champlain. General William Hull led 2,000 troops to Detroit. Sir Isaac Brock, captured Detroit & the army. Niagara River: USA forces at Queenston Heights defeated & captured. Lake Champlain: Third United States army advanced from Plattsburgh, N.Y. 1813: War of the Third Coalition, Russo-Swedish War: Napoleon faces hostile alliance of Austria, England, Russia, Prussia, Sweden. He wins victories at Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden. Defeated at the Battle of the Nations in Leipzig, Saxony.
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