Tartan Day - Customs - Legends - Rings - E-Cards
Scottish History Timeline: 20th Century
- 1901 - 1920
- The Congregation of the Holy Roman & Universal Inquisition is renamed the Holy Office. The Fourth Colonial Conference meets to coronate Albert Edward VII and to establish a system of colonial taxation, legislation, and martial law to be administered by the British War Office. [13 million square miles, 140 times larger than Britain, twice as big as Russia] Edward VII dies in 1910 and George Frederick Ernest von Wettin V becomes king of England. His wife Victoria Mary of Teck-Württemberg changes her name to Queen Mary. British Army is trained in bombmaking and gas chambers in France. Cumann na nGaedheal: Community of Gaels and Dungannon clubs become Sinn Fein League. Irish rebels capture Dublin post office, declare Ireland its own nation, and are sentenced to death by firing squad. Prisoner Terrence MacSwiney goes on hunger strike and dies. Lady Gregorys cousin is assasinated. Order in Council & Titles Deprivation Act 1917 permanently changes the name of the British Royal House from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor. The use of all German titles and styles are relinquished and British-sounding surnames are adopted. Relatives who are British subjects with German titles such as Duke Adolphus and Duchess Margaret-Evelyn of Teck-Mecklenburg-Strelitz [changed to Cambridge], Prince Louis and Princess of Battenberg [changed to Mountbatten], Prince and Princess of Hesse and by Rhine, and Prince and Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Augustenberg [changed to Great Britain & Ireland or Denmark]. Relatives of the British Royal Family who fought on the German sides peerages are suspended.
International: USA President William McKinley assasinated by Leon Czolgosz at Pan-American Exhibition in Buffalo. South African War: Lord Strathcona of the Canadian Pacific Railroad recruits infantry battalions from Canada to battle South Africans. Union of South Africa formed. London Convention a.k.a Natives Land Act forbids African landbuying and loans. Gunboat Diplomacy: Edward VII sends 3,000 troops into Tibet under the command of Foreign Office Col. Francis Younghusband. The British withdraw after signing the Anglo-Tibetan Convention which allows them to have Trade Agents at Gyantse & Gartok in Western Tibet. Hitler takes up residence at Viennas Asylum for the Homeless. Ford Motor Company founded. Columbian Civil War: War of a Thousand Days: Simply Contractors LTD of England dispossess the Quimbaya of Colombia and drain Lake Guatavita dry looking for gold. Egypt is considered a protectorate & the Suez Canal is built. Panama Canal. Philippine Insurrection, Samoan Civil War.Korean Holocaust: Japan defeats the Russian Navy. The entire educated classes of Korea, school teachers, lawyers, doctors, and scholars are massacred. Korean language outlawed. President Theodore Roosevelt first American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in ending the Russo-Japanese War. Japanese laborers banned from US. Mexican Revolution WWI: War between four dynasties, the Habsburgs [Austria-Hungary], the Romanovs [Russia-France], the Ottomans & the Hohenzollerns [Germany]. Die Mittelmächte: The Central Powers. Austria-Hungary-Germany-Bulgaria-Ottoman Empire. Triple Entente: France-Russia-Britain Balkan War: Armenian Massacres: The Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria) conquer Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace in 1912. Greeks had been working on Macedonian çiftlik tobacco estates owned by the Empire. 1913: Second Balkan War: Macedonia divided by Bulgaria [Eastern], Serbia [North & Central] & Greece [Southern]. Thrace divided by Bulgaria [Western] & Turkey [Eastern]. In 1914: Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand Hapsburg declares war on Serbia from his Austrian summer residence at Bad Ischl in Salzkammeralagut. He establishes a concentration camp at Bad Ischl that later becomes a subcamp of Dachau, He & Archduchess Sofia von Chotkowa und Wognin, Duchess of Hohenburg assasinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 by Gavrilo Princip. They had come to direct army maneuvers. 1914: Battle of Tannenberg: Russian forces in East Prussia defeated. People flee to Moscow to escape the occupied German army. Germany under Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und Paul von Hindenburg Schwickart attack Russias ally France by invading it through Belgium & Luxembourg to Paris Battle of the Marne: General Joseph Joffre vs Chief of German General Staff Helmuth von Moltke. Allied victory. Moltke replaced by Erich von Falkenhayn. Reims bombed for four straight years. First Battle of Ypres: In Belgium. 1915: Second Battle of Ypres: April Germans use poison gas for first time causing vomiting & suffocation. Allies use poison gas after. Gas masks used in the trenches. Flame throwers shoot streams of burning fuel. Ottoman government orders the Genocide of the Armenians. Concentration camps are built in Syria and Turkey. Armenians are starved to death and forced to work on the Baghdad railway. Fighting in German East Afica (Tanzania) for three years. May 7th 1915: Kaiser Wilhelm II orders the torpedoing of Lord Inverclydes Lusitania [Alfred Vanderbilt & Producer Charles Frohman victims] & Arabic. England declares war on Germany. Germany bombs London from airships called zeppelins. Ukrainians living in Canada are put in concentration camps. Germans & Italians interned in the United States. The German language is banned in 22 states. George Crill Chief of the WWI Censorship Code. 1916: Battle of Verdun Commander in Chief of the Western Front: Henri Philippe Pétain vs Falkenhayn, Battle of Jutland: Denmark: Admiral Sir John Jellicoe’s English fleet vs Admiral Reinhard Scheer’s German Fleet, Battle of the Somme: 1 million+ casualties. 1917:Bolshevik Revolution: Peasants starving in Petrograd riot and the Russian Imperial army goes in to quell it. In Petrograd the soldiers refuse to shoot demonstrators. Angry crowds attack and loot prisons, courts, and police stations. Tsar Nikolas II and Tsaritza Princess Alix of Hesse [granddaughter of Queen Victoria] deposed in March, transported to Yekaterinburg, Siberia, shot by firing squad with their five children: Aleksai, Maria, Tatiana, Olga, Anasthasia. Czarist currency de-valued. The Red Army defends itself against the Germans, the Ukrainian Army under Petlyura struggling for Ukrainian independence and the White Army. Yevsektsii Bolsheviks close synagogues and kheyders, confiscate religious books and objects, and conduct a campaign against rabbis and leaders. Russian Jews who support Zionist organizations are liquidated. 100,000 Jews dead and more than half a million homeless. Battle of Megiddo: England captures Jerusalem, Baghdad, Palestine, and Egypt. George Sylvester Viereck publishes The Fatherland. . US invades Haiti and ships the Haitian national treasury to the First National City Bank in New York. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Secretary of the U.S. Navy, writes a new constitution allowing US companies to seize land for agribusiness and create a system of forced labor: corvée. The marines shoot any who resist and herd the rest into concentration camps. President Wilson puts financier Bernard M. Baruch in charge of the War Industries Board, which turns factories into producers of war materials. The Food Administration, headed by businessman Herbert Hoover, controls the prices, production, & distribution of food. Americans observe meatless & wheatless days in order that food sent to Europe. Draft requiring all men from 21 - 30 years old to register. Age range broadened to 18 - 45 in 1918. Lottery determines who serves. Third Battle of Ypres / Battle of Passchendaele 1000s drown in the swampland. Snow & ice halt battle. 1918: St.-Quentin, Somme River Valley: Pétain made a Marshal of France. Paris: Germans shell Paris with Big Bertha guns named after steel industrialist Bertha Krupp Lys River, Belgium: Ludendorff calls off the attack. Second Battle of the Marne: Allies advanced to Amiens, St.-Mihiel. Argonne Forest. The top ace of WWI was Baron Manfred von Richthofen of Germany, who was known as the Red Baron or Red Knight. He shot down 80 enemy aircraft before he was killed in action in 1918. Bulgaria surrenders September 29. Ottoman Empire signed an armistice October 30. Nov 8: Weimarer Republik: Weimar Republic: Berlin the capital of Germany’s Weimar Republic. Kurt Eisner (1867–1919: assasinated), convicted of treason in 1918 for inciting a strike of German munitions workers, organizes the revolution and is elected premier of Bavaria. Reichskancelor Prince Maximilian von Baden advises Kaiser Wilhelm II in Berlin to abdicate the throne. When he refuses & the crowds scream for his blood he flees to the Netherlands under Empress Wilhelmina & is not extradited for war crimes. German official monarchy titles are abolished: Ernst Ludwig of Hesse [grandson of Queen Victoria] gives up title. Philipp Scheidemann (1865–1939) serves as a president of the Provisional Government . Nov 11: Armistice: Germany signs an Armistice ending WWI. June 28, 1919: Zuzammenbruch: Treaty of Versailles: France under Georges Clemenceau attempts to exact economic reparations from Germany. Austria, Czechoslovakia become new states under Hapsburg, Germany. Austrians are starving. Independant State of Prussia [Poland? in 1907? There was no such country at that time anywhere on the map of the globe for the simple reason that in 1772 Poland was divided among Germany, Austria & Russia. To say that I was born in Poland in 1907 is equivalent that I was born in Never-Never-Land. Poland was reborn in 1919, but at that time I was already 12 years old. in 1907, the city of Warsaw was situated within the borders of Russia as solidly as, say, Moscow. The official language was Russian and my birth certificate was written in Russian. – Michael Zimmermann] SS Leader Ernst Röhm and the Freikorps install a new government. The Klu Klux Klan is reorganized in America with 3 million members and called The Invisible Empire. Membership is open to any white protestant over the age of 18. Klan Day is held at the State Fair of Texas and boasts an attendance of 75,000. Klansmen at Large are officials whose names are not leaked to the press.
- Government of Ireland Act: Ireland split into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the English under George V. The South is told the majority vote is needed in six Northern counties in order for union to occur. Gerrymandering destroys a positive vote and rioting occurs. [gerrymander: from USA Vice President Elbridge Gerry + salamander: the division of districts to help a political party keep power; in his case a huge district shaped like a salamander]. British army officers in black and tan uniforms under the direction of the Imperial General Staff murder civillians, conduct raids and arrests, burn houses, town halls, creameries, and crops. Cork is burnt to the ground and Trim is looted. Croke Park Massacre: British Auxillaries open fire on All Ireland Sports Final and kill 11 civilians. Irish rebels under Michael Collins kill 12 British Intelligence officers. Tom Barry annihilates auxillary patrol at Kilmichael. IRA seize and burn the custom house in Dublin. Collins assasinated. King George V appeals to the Irish people to Forgive and Forget. Liam Lynch starts the campaign of burning senators houses to the ground and John Bagwell is kidnapped. Castle Forbes is blown up with a landmine. Kilteragh, Bessborough and Desart Court are petrol bombed. Lord Desart finds his furniture out on the grass beside his blackened house and watches as it is torched to flames.
International: January 1920-April 1946: League of Nations: Geneva, Switzerland. The United States never joins the League of Nations. Permanent members: England, France [Paul Deschanel 1920], Germany [withdraws 1933], Italy, Japan [withdraws 1933], Russia. Italy attacks Ethiopeia, receives no sanctions, and leaves in 1937. Amritsar Massacre:British troops shoot civilians. Food is exported while more than three million Indians starve. Rowlett Acts declare martial law. Ghandi boycotts British textiles.Burmese Revolt:British arrest and imprison the Thakin party and its Prime Minister. Burmese Prime Minister Saw asks Winston Churchill for independance. He is refused. English force the Karen of Burma into Christianity. The White Terror of Hungary tortures and murders Jews, Liberals, and Peasants. Food relief from the USA and Holland denied to the starving people. Concentration camps are built and peasants are thrown alive into the furnaces. Stalin seizes power in Russia and starts a famine.
- 1922-1948 AD
- British Broadcasting Company established as a monopoly on news information. Gerald Beadle of BBC Television is invited to become a member of the British Ulster Club. He is told to keep quiet on Northern Ireland. Union of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church. George V begins the custom of broadcasting himself on Christmas Day each year after the Crisis of 1931 and dies in 1936. Edward VIII reigns for 11 months, abdicates throne, and is shipped off to the Bahamas. His brother George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) who was beaten by his father, abused, and called mentally deficient, marries Lady Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (called the Queen Mother) and takes the throne in 1936. The Poor Laws are abolished. New slums are built for the poor by a man named Peabody. They are called the Peabody Housing Estates.Great Hunger March of unemployed to London. Karl Pearson, of the English Eugenics Society writes The Problem of Alien Immigration into Great Britain, Illustrated by an examination of Russian and Polish Jewish Children. 1942: Gruinard Island, Scotland: anthrax bomb detonated. 80 test sheep die within days. Decontamination unsuccessful, island quarantined. 280 tons of formaldehyde diluted in seawater sprayed on the island and new sheep are tested in 1990. Quarantine removed.Economic War: de Valera comes to power in Southern Ireland and starts changing the constitution. He abolishes the Senate to halt the political power of the Aristocracy and refuses to pay Land Annuities to England. England introduces an import tax. Admiral Boyle Somerville is shot dead after recruiting locals into the Royal Navy.
International: Some Native Americans granted US citizenship, while others are repatriated to México. US President Warren Harding dies of food poisoning in 1923, VP Coolidge. American Eugenics Society forcibly sterilizes people. 1927: Buck VS Bell says it is constitutional. Oklahoma Governor John Calloway places his state under martial law because of the terrorist activities of the Ku Klux Klan. J. Edgar Hoover appointed to head the FBI. French is outlawed in the United States until 1968. Paul Lawrence Dunbar Houses backed by John D. Rockefeller Jr. New York City landlords not renting to blacks. Harlem rents higher than rents elsewhere. In the late 1920s, a typical white working class family in New York paid $6.67 per month per room, while blacks in Harlem paid $9.50 for the same space. 1929: Black Tuesday: Great Depression: 2,500 American banks fail. 13,000,000 unemployed. Supreme Court Justice Joseph Crater mysteriously disappears. Tafts funeral procession. 1930: Bureau of Narcotics formed with Harry Anslinger. Franklin D. Roosevelt elected. The day after his inauguration in 1933 he orders a nationwide Bank Holiday, to prevent withdrawal runs on banks due to depression. Tom Sito says a nice way of saying shut the whole darn system down to stop the panic and slide. One third of all U.S. banks had already collapsed. Roosevelt moved so fast, throwing program after program to combat the Great Depression, that his first 100 days in office became legendary, and now the media use it as a litmus to measure other presidents. Social Security Act & Veterans Administration created in 1935. Federal minimum wage of 25¢ per hour established. Hindenburg Crash. Long March: Mao Tse-tung seizes Tibet. Bavarian Law for the Combating the Gypsies, Travellers & Work-Shy sends them to workhouses and sterilizes them.
World War II: Das Dritte Reich: The Third Reich: Nazi Party (Arrow Cross) backed by royal families and Archduke Albert of Hapsburg build over 100 concentration camps to exterminate Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Poles, Ukrainians, Greeks, Homosexuals, Jehovahs Witnesses, the Disabled and Enemies of the State.(Current death estimates are: 300,000 Jehovahs witnesses [purple triangle], prostitutes [black triangle], Maquis: French Resistance Fighters [green triangle], foreigners [blue triangle], POWs [red triangle], political insurgents [black triangle], 1.5 million homosexuals [pink triangle], Poles [red triangle with the letter P], Czech [red triangle with the letter T. German word for Czech is Tscheche], 2.5 million+ Hungarians, 30 million Ukrainians, 1 million+ Serbs in Jasnevac I Concentration Camp alone [blue triangle], 11 million Jews [yellow star] by 1942 alone according to SS Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich, 93,000 hospitalized people [black triangle] by 1941, Vagrants [black triangle], Race Mixers [yellow triangle], & 6 million+ Gypsys a.k.a Zigeuners [Z badge: Zigeuner is from the Greek word for Untouchable. Gypsys live in tribes originating from Northern India. brown triangle in Dachau.] ) Munich Conference: British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain gives the German-speaking areas of Czechoslovakia [Sudetenland] to Hitler. Mussolinis men invade Ethiopeia and massacre the people with poison gas. Return from the River Kwai: Hirohitos POWs build the Rakuyo Maru: Railway of Death between Burma & Thailand. 10,000 POWs packed in & torpedoed. The rest are marched from Tamarkan to the railway yard at Kanchanaburi for Bangkok and then to Saigon in red-hot steel cattle trucks, 62 men to a car. Gezira Scheme: British build canals in the White Nile to divert water from rainfed sorghum to cotton production. In Khartoum, downtown streets are laid out in the form of union jacks and machine guns are placed at the center of each cross. Nazi commander & Hussar general Joseph Tito Broz declares himself president of Yugoslavia [south land of the Slavs], divides Serbia into: South Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia [which had never before existed as a country in the history of Europe] and Kosovo; seperates Croatia and places it under the direct jurisdiction of the Vatican Pope Pius XII. Croatia (Ustashi police: Ante Pavelic, Cardinal Stepinac, Father Draganovic and Bishop Ivan Saric [The Hangman]) and Slovakia (Bishop Tiso) become the only two countries during the Holocaust ruled under direct orders of the Church. Jews deported from Salonika to the concentration camps in 1943 by Kurt Waldheim. Stalinist Purges: Red Army frees the concentration camp victims of Auschwitz, kill 4000 Polish soldiers, 60,000 Hungarians and East Germans. Baltic states, Austria, Poland, Romania & Hungary annexed. 3.5 million German soldiers are marched into Russia and never heard from again. Ukrainians are starved to death and denied grain. [Current Death Estimates are: 9 million Ukrainian Farmers, 6 million Russian farmers, 40 million people including Volga Germans and Cossacks, and 20 million WWII war dead (79)] Cheka mass execute in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. Okinawa: Pulitzer Prize newsman Ernie Pyle dies . Great Calcutta Killing and Punjab Riots: British kill 4,000 and wound another 10,000. Nuremberg: Allies force German people to bury the bodies of concentration camp victims. General Josef Goebbels poisons his six children with cyanide. Hitler swallows cyanide, and Mengele escapes. The trials are judged by Lord Geoffrey Lawrence of England who gives a lengthy speech on the evils of genocide. The accused plead not guilty to charges of genocide and building a totalitarian regime. Mussolini is publically hanged in Italy. UN: United Nations Charter signed on June 26, 1945 in San Francisco, California at the War Memorial Building. Japan is nuclear bombed. India gains independence: sub-continent partitioned to form India and Pakistan. Britsh Palestine is divided along the Jordan river into Jordan & Israel. French women given the right to vote.
- 1949-1962 AD
- Southern Ireland is declared an Independant Republic from England. Children are no longer beaten for speaking Gaelic in Scottish school yards. George VI dies. Elizabeth II, the next monarch, crowned on television in 1952 with her husband Prince Philip of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Glücksburg, Duke of Edinburgh. Elizabeth II returns from Kenya after Mau Mau Terrorists murder white settlers after settlers threaten to scorch their land. She declares martial law in Kenya and internment without trial in Kenya and Northern Ireland. Display of Irish flag is banned in Northern Ireland. Race Riots in Notting Hill and in Nottingham. Empire Day becomes Commonwealth Day. Britain passes Commonwealth Immigrants Act to control immigration
International: French-Indochina War: France is unable to regain control of its colonies in Southeast Asia. They are defeated at Dien Bien Phu. The 1954 Geneva Agreement establishes two governments in Vietnam: north & south. 1964: Operation Rolling Thunder/ Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: U.S. destroyer Maddox reports being fired on by a North Vietnamese torpedo boat in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of Vietnam. Some historians question whether the ship was really attacked. The Canadian Department of Indian Affairs & Department of Social Services: Genocide by Integration: force 10,000 Native American women to give up their children for adoption. Children are kidnapped, confined in Christian boarding schools, tortured, raped, and beaten to death. The class action lawsuit threatens to bankrupt the Anglican church 1951: CRC: Civil Rights Congress argues that because the US government fails to act against lynching, it is guilty of genocide under Article II of the UN Genocide Convention. US Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization Act 1954: Termination & Relocation phase: The Lumbee and 60 tribes [Kickapoos, Potawatamis, Cheyennes, Sioux, Arapahoes, Blackfeet] become legislatively unrecognised Tribes are required to carry CDIB: Certification of Degree of Indian Blood cards. Census measures Black people as mulatto, quadroon & octaroons. Mainstream education among non-Indians in the US & Canada teaches children that the genocide was successful, and that there are no real Indians left. Sharpeville Massacre:Macmillan s wind of change speech in South Africa. Seventeen African colonies including: Ghana, Uganda, Somalia and Nigeria [Biafra, capitol of Nigeria, site of a massacre] gain independance from England. Afghanistan wars against England. Malaya and Cypress get independance. Charles de Gaulle proclaims The Fifth Republic: La Défense. Algerian police kill 200 civil rights protesters, throwing their bodies into the Seine river. French media remains silent Algeria gains independence.