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Scottish History Timeline: 12th Century -16th Century
1187-1283 AD
King Richard I Coeur de Leon: The Lion-Hearted and Queen Berengaria of England sell William the monarchy back for 10,000 marks. William’s Anglo-Saxons and Flemings take over Inverness / Ireland. 1199: Alexander II takes throne, but is known as a Celtic earl because King John of England a.k.a Jean sans Terre Plantagenêt now ruler by papal dispensation after Richard I is killed in The Crusades by the Archduke of Austria. King John made ruler of: England, Scotland, Ireland & Wales by the Holy Roman Empire: Emperor Henry VI. 1202: Prince Arthur: Bear Born, heir to the English throne, is imprisoned in the Tower of Falaise and stabbed to death. His sister Eleanor is locked in a convent. 1220: Guy Fawkes: Gascon Fawkes de Breaute, captain of King John’s mercenaries, loses Oxford and Hertford castles and the sheriffdoms of Oxford, Bedford, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdon. Elfael Campaign: Welsh Rebellion: Welsh princes attack all the English castles in Wales. King John hangs them and sends for Flemish mercenaries. 1231: Gannoc or Degannwy Campaign, Gloucester Peace Treaty: Henry III brings Welshmen’s heads back as trophies. Llywelyn ap Iorwerth attacks Montgomery, Radnor, Brecon, Caerleon and Cardigan. David II ap [means son of] Llywelyn (pron. loo-WELL-in) repudiates the treaty, appeals to the pope, and assumes the title Prince of Wales. 1263: Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England captured by Simon de Montfort. 1263: Battle of Largs: Alexander II seizes Norwegian Argyll, Galloway & Hebrides islands, dispenses the land to his own followers, hangs Norwegian supporters, and dies. King of the Isles Angus Mór accepts King Alexander III of Scotland as his overlord and retains his territory. 1266: Bread Trials: English Laws Regulate the price of bread & limit bakers’ profits. Bakers ordered to mark each loaf of bread, prosecuted for selling loaves not conforming to the weights required by Edward I. 1272: Baron’s War: Battle of Evesham: Simon de Montfort assasinated. Edward I, Hammer of the Scots, becomes king of England. He murders Llewellyn, last native Prince of Wales and annexes Wales to England. Montfort’s body is hacked to pieces and buried under the high altar of Evesham Cathedral by the Cistercian monks. Llewellyn and his brother David’s heads are exposed on a lance in the Tower of London after being hung, drawn, and quartered. First Sedition Law: Anyone who criticizes the king, government, army, flag, etc. can be tried
International: Gempei War: 1180-1185: Kamakura Shogunate military leader Yoritomo of Minamoto clan shares civil & military rule with the imperial court at Kyoto. Japan’s hereditary warriors who defend the Imperial Court called samurai. The Fourth Crusade: 1202-1204: Baldwin, Count of Flanders, becomes Emperor of Constantinople in 1204, but dies within 2 years. The new Emperor, Portuguese Count Ferrarnd, is captured by his wife’s uncle Phillip II of France and disposed of. The French areas of: Anjou, Aire, St. Omer, Brittany, Maine, Normandy, and the Touraine have widespread famine and destruction. The Inquisition: starts and continues until 1832. Waldensian Heresies: The Poor men of Lyon, the Poor of Lombardy, or the Poor, followers of Peter Waldo (Vaudes) a merchant streetpreacher who freely give away money are charged with contempt for ecclesiastical power by teaching and preaching outside of the control of the clergy and for translating parts of the Bible into vernacular. Reinerius Saccho turns state’s evidence for Pope Innocent III and writes Summa de Catharis et Pauperibus de Lugduno: Summation of the Cathars & Paupers of Lugduno (Lyon): Of the Sects of Modern Heretics for the Inquisition. The Poor Men of Lyon flee to the Count of Savoy at Piedmont, but are persecuted into the 16th century. 1206: Temujin later named Genghis Khan/Chingis/Jenghis ruler of Mongolia. The Mongol chiefs proclaim him khan of all the tribes. 1209: Emir of Ardabil attacks Georgia, slaughters 12,000 Georgians and enslaves thousands as mamluks: white slaves. devSvirmé: blood tax: children taken by Ottoman Empire tax collectors to serve in the army and as slaves on estates. State monopoly of trade in cereals. Food supply regulated The Emir is assasinated by Queen Thamar of Georgia who seizes Armenia. When she dies in 1212 the Mongols invade. power. 1219: Denmark invades the South Coast of the Baltic Sea & seizes Estonia .Albigensian Crusades: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: Battle of Toulouse (1209-1229) Pope Innocent III calls the Knights Templar, Montessa & the Order Santiago Matamoros: St. James the Moor-killer with French, Navarrese, Castillian & Aragonese armies [these regions had been seized by the Visigoths] to fight the Moors: Caliphate of Cordoba in Spain. Count Raymond VI of Toulouse is excommunicated, Languedoc Region of Southern France, part of the Kingdom of Aragon, overrun. Simon de Montfort and his army of 2000 mercenary soldiers, granted control of the area encompassing Carcassonne, Albi, and Béziers, kill 100,000 Albigensians and brand them heretics. He builds Our Lady of the Rosary Chapel on the battleground. In Béziers, Abbot Arnaud-Amaury, declares ”Caedite eos! Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius– Slay them all! God will know his own“ and 10,000 citizens are killed. The Teutonic Order is created by Pope Innocent III. 1212: Portugal wins its independence from the Caliphate of Cordoba. The Spanish Mesta, National Coopertive of Sheepgrowers, drive sheep across the countryside while farmers are forbidden to protect their crops. Nobility evict peasants and create sheep pastures from the 13th century to a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. 1225: Holy Roman Emperor & King of Germany Frederick II Hohenstaufen switches from Roman Numerals to the Arabic decimal number system under advice from court astronomer Michael Scotus, court philosopher Theodorus Physicus, and Dominicus Hispanus who are sent the findings of Leonardo Fibonacci Pisano’s discoveries in Algeria. The decimal zero in Arabic is zephirum. Also spelled sifr it appears in the word cipher. Michael Scott Goes to Rome is the surviving oral & written folklore in Scotland. Michael Scott studied at Oxford, Paris, Bologna, Palermo, and Toledo. His refusal of the See of Cashel; he was credited with supernatural powers. Boccaccio alludes to a great master in necromancy, called Michael Scot while Dante places him in the 8th circle of Hell. 1229: Pope Gregory IX invades Byzantium, murders Issac II by burning him alive in the Church of Constantine, massacres the people, and decrees that Jews must live in ghettos and wear yellow or red badges and pointed hats. 1240: Franciscan Friars John of Plano Carpini & William of Rubruck, visit the Khan at Karakorum, Mongolia. The friars fail to convert the Khan to Christianity. 1253: Battle of Walcheren: William II, Count of Holland seizes Hainaut and Flanders. Mixtures of herbs & gruit used to preserve and flavor beer are seized by the church. In some areas the church has a monopoly on producing gruit and requires all brewers to purchase it from them. Brewers who switch to non-church controlled hops are persecuted. 1271: Mongols unsuccessful at capturing Japan. Mongols conquer southern China, establish the Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo sets off for China from Venice in 1271. More than 3 years later, he reaches Kublai Khan’s summer palace in Cambaleuc, Peking/Beijing.
1284-1307 AD
1284: Statute of Rhuddlan: Edward I: Places Welsh lands directly under English control; dividing them into counties under the control of English sheriffs. To ensure control over Wales, Edward builds powerful castles, including those at Caernarfon and Harlech. John II (1286-1305) of Brittany marries Edward I’s sister Beatrice Plantagenêt. Rhys ap Maredudd leads the Welsh revolts, burns Caernarfon Castle and lynches the sheriff. He is defeated by Edmund Plantagenêt, Edward’s younger brother, and hanged. Edward promises the Welsh people a prince who speaks no word of English, giving them his infant son Edward II the title Prince of Wales. Margaret “the Maid of Norway” heir to the Scottish crown sent to the English court of Edward I at age 7 and dies enroute. Edward I crowns John Balliol and later strips him of title. Edward I garrisons castles of Inverness and Urquart and has Scottish nobles sign the Ragman Roll accepting the Kingship of England. Nobles are evicted and replaced with English governors. Bards and Harpists of Wales, Ireland, and Scotland are hung. War of Independance Balliol tries to get military aid from France known as the Auld Alliance. William Wallace fights English at the Battle of Stirling and is defeated at The Battle of Falkirk. He is tried, branded, hung until unconscious, drawn, castrated, and disembowled. His head is impaled on London Bridge. Robert the Bruce becomes Robert I of Scotland after murdering Red Comyn. Polish King Wenceslas III murdered. The Teutonic Order / Knights Templars builds castles in Malbork and Kwydzin, Poland. Edward I confines the Countess of Buchan in an iron cage at Berwick Castle, for placing the crown of Scotland on the head of Bruce. Friday 13, 1307 Knights Templars eliminated by the Inquisition. Dead sea scrolls moved to Portugal. It is rumored that the French Templars had planned to build their own state and that is why King Phillip IV of France had them divided and tried. Edward I dies on 6.7.1307 at Burgh-on-Sands on his way to Scotland.
1314-1346 AD
1314: Battle of Bannockburn: Declaration of Arbroath / Treaty of Northampton Robert the Bruce’s wife and daughter kidnapped. Edward II of England murdered by his wife Isabella of France. Declaration of Arbroth sent to Rome declaring Scotland a nation and Scots as: Angles, Saxons, Flemings, Normans, Norse, Strathclyde Britons, and Gaels. Isabella imprisons her son in the Tower of London and declares herself regent of England (a regent is one who rules until the king / queen is an adult). Edward III escapes the tower, banishes his mother to Norfolk, invades Scotland, and proclaims Edward Balliol King of Scotland. 5 year old David II of Scotland smuggled to France. Famine of 1315-1317, Battle of Athenry 1316: 5 Irish kings killed along with chieftains from Connacht, Thomond and Westmeath. Richard de Clare dies at the Battle of Dysert O’Dea. 1338: Sacheverell Martholine, Governor of the Isle of Man issues an edict against witchcraft. David’s regent Robert Stewart, son of Robert the Bruce & Marjorie Stewart, deposes Balliol and David returns. 1337: Hundred Years War:Edward III, nephew of deceased French King Charles IV, claims the French throne from King Philip VI. His armies win victories at Crecy and Poitiers. Battle of Neville’s Cross: David II taken to Tower of London and killed. Robert Stewart rules as Robert II.
International: 1309: French archbishop Pope Clement V moves the pope's court from Rome to Avignon, where it remained until 1377. Papal Inquisition of Aragón: Jacques de Molay the last grand-master of the Knight’s Templar burned at the stake by King Philip IV. He predicts the King and Pope Clement V will follow him in 40 days which they do. Norman warlords kill the people of Jerusalem and steal their wealth with the mantra Hep! Hep! – Hierosalyma est perdita: Jerusalem is lost. Constantinople is turned into a huge slave market. 1330s: Japan’s Ashikaga clan ousts the Minamotos from power. 1346: The Danes sell their Estonian holdings to the Teutonic Knights.
1346-1399 AD
Statues of Kilkenny: Gaelic language outlawed. Irish living near English settlements forced to take English surnames. Those who don’t are imprisoned. Adam Dubh of the Leinster O’Toole’s burnt alive as a heretic on College Green by Edward III and Pope Benedict XII for rejecting the authority of the Holy See. Petronilla of Meath & her daughter Sarah, Galrussyns, Alice Faber, Annota Lange, and Eva de Brownestown burned alive at St Mary’s Kilkenny.1349: Statue of Laborers: Prohibits charity, 1363: Sumptuary Law: Crimes of Fashion: Regulates the clothing to be worn by: Common laborers, servants, craftsmen, merchants, knights, noble women & female companions of the clergy. 1377: King Richard II Bourdeaux of England (1367-1400) is 10 years old. His regent is his uncle, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. 1381: Wat Tyler Rebellion: Essex and Kent peasants revolt. Tyler murders the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Treasurer, John Legg, and a physican. Mansions are burnt and the city is looted. Tyler is stabbed to death after infiltrating the Tower of London. London mobs sack Saint Paul’s Cathedral, Lancaster’s Palace of Savoy and Lord Percy’s residence. Chaplain William Wycliffe and Lord Percy flee to the Princess of Wales Estate at Kennington. 1388 First English Poor Law: Statute of Cambridge 12 Rich.II c.7 Each county ‘Hundred’ responsible for ‘relieving impotent poor.’ Servants wishing to move out of their Hundred require a letter of authority from the ‘good man of the Hundred’ - the local Justice of the Peace. It authorizes murder or relief of those incapable of work. [This is preserved in Winnie the Pooh and the Hundred Acre Wood]1388: Battle of Otterburn / Chevy Chase: Merciless Parliament of 1388 executes & imprisons court advisors. 1390: King Robert III of Scotland. Scottish nobles question his right to the throne. Richard II Bourdeaux Plantagenêt of England deposed and assasinated. Dick Whittington becomes Lord Mayor of London. Henry IV establishes Lancastrian dynasty.Black Plague hits Europe from China and kills one third of the population of England, 75 million, in a single winter.
International:The Black Plague / The great pestilence in the Orient: Depopulates India, Tartary, Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia; the Kurds fled in vain to the mountains. In Caramania and Caesarea [Saragossa] none were left alive. Dying sailors arrive at Italian ports & are catapulted away at Genoa. French physician Gui de Chauliac notes 3 kinds of symptoms: egg sized tumors, usually under the arm, then black or purple spots, second deadly form: fever & blood spitting, third form: no symptoms, so sudden that some who retire at night in health are found cold in the morning. In Milan, the archbishop orders victims’ homes walled up, with all occupants inside, sick or well. People flee Florence. Jean Froissart writes of German penitents going from town to town, ”scourging themselves with whips of knotted leather with iron spikes, to entreat God to stop the mortality.’ Froissart writes, ’At that time the Jews were taken and burnt everywhere throughout the world, except in the domains beneath the protection of the Pope’ [Clement]. Ming: Bright Dynasty of China begins after the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty. Battle of Poitiers: Pacification of France: Richard II the Black Prince, son of Edward III, captures King John of France and his son Louis of Anjou. Bands of mercenaries carry out chevauchees: burning the countryside. Joan Plantagenêt, daughter of Edward III, marries Pedro the Cruel of Spain and dies of the plague. Henry of Grosmont raids Toulouse and dies of the plague. La Facquerie. Peasants’ Rebellion lead by Facques Bonhomme. Treaty of Bretigny: Geoffrey de Charney captures Calais. Sir Thomas Dagworth: Brittany. Aquitaine, western France from Calais to Gascony and Brittany ceded to Edward III. Edward’s mercenary armies fight for Pedro the Cruel and Enrique de Trastamara in the Spanish Civil War. John Stowe writes of their exploits in the Survey of London and mentions Pedro poisoning his second wife Blanche of Bourbon. Edward III’s son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster marries Pedro’s daughter Isabella. When Pedro is stabbed by his brother Enrique he claims the Spanish throne. 1375: Truce of Brudges Nobles of Aquitane with Enrique’s help attack the English coastline. Limoges is sacked and 5 inhabitants survive. John Hastings, earl of Pembroke defeated by the French of La Rochelle and captured. English give up French territory. 1377: Great Schism: Popes living in Avignon, France since 1309 find their Laterian Palace burned. They move to the Vatican. Candidates from Avignon & Rome both claim to be rightful pope through 1417. Ibn Battuta travels to all the Muslim Lands: Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, India, Ceylon, Ethiopia, Mali, Asia Minor, Persia, Indonesia, China, Andalusia & the Great Mosque of Damascus, Syria. 1397: Union of Kalmar: Queen Margaret of Denmark, after the death of husband King Haakon VI of Norway rules Denmark, Norway, Sweden. 1398: Turkestan’s Timur the Lame-Tamerlane, descendant of the Khan, conquers Central Asia, sacks Delhi, massacres most of its inhabitants in 1398.
1400-1488 AD
Battle of Shrewsbury: Owen Glendower Rebellion: Owain Glyn Dwr, a Welsh Prince, leads the revolt & battles the English for 10 years before Henry IV gains the upper hand. Henry IV assumes kingship of Scotland, forfeits lands to the crown, and beheads Scottish nobles .James I is crowned King of Scotland at age 12 in 1406 but is still imprisoned in the Tower of London. The Governor of Scotland is Murdoch, Duke of Albany. Battle of Aughakilmore: Henry V takes throne in 1413 and suppresses the Lollards as heretics. 1420-1422: Battle of Agincourt: Henry V (1387-1422) defeats the French at Agincourt and marries Catherine, daughter of Charles VI of France. He forces Charles VI to declare him heir to the French crown. 1422: Infant Henry VI , 9 months old, on throne of England. His regent, one who rules until the king is an adult, is the Duke of Bedford. Bedford sieges Verneuil, kills Lord Agincourt and captures his cousins, the 15-year-old Duc d’Alençon (ransomed) and his brother (dies). 1430: The Dauphin is crowned at Reims and Henry VI of England is crowned king of France in Paris in 1431.1437: Battle of Druimnacoub: Earl-king James I starts taxing the Scots. He holds Parliament at Inverness and imprisons 50 Highland chiefs. Alexander, Lord of the Isles, burns Inverness to the ground and assasinates James I at Perth. Blackheath Rebellion: Geoffrey de Marisco justiciar of Ireland. John Payn, Fastof’s servant captured by rebels. 1450: Jack Cade Rebellion of England: Fastolf’s house attacked and demolished by Jack Cade and his followers. Lord Treasurer beheaded by people. Henry VI retreats. 1452: James II of Scotland stabs to death Earl William of Douglas. 1460: Siege of Roxburgh: James II of Scotland killed by a cannon when warring against Henry VI. James III crowned at 9 years old. He marries Queen Margaret of Denmark and receives the Northern Isles, Orkney and Shetland, from Norway. The Duchess of Gloucester (pron. gloster), Eleanor Cobham, dies in Peel Castle after 14 years imprisonment. Accused of sorcery with intent of regicide. Roger Bolingbroke, the duke’s chaplain executed, Margery Jourdemain burnt at the stake. 1453-1470: Wars of the Roses, Battle of St. Albans: Barons name Richard of York (white rose) ruler due to Henry VI Lancaster’s insanity (red rose). Dec. 30, 1460: Henry VI’s wife Queen Margaret of Anjou’s forces kill Richard II in Yorkshire. 1461: Battle of Towton: Richard ’s son, Edward Duke of York, crowned Edward IV. 1471: Battle of Tewkesbury: Edward IV murders Henry VI, Queen Margaret and their son in Gloucester. Battle of Bloody Bay, Battle of Sauchieburn: Edward’s armies invade Scotland, hang James’ noblemen before him, and kill him. James IV is crowned, seizes Lord of the Isles estates, beheads the chief of the MacKenzies, and divides Highlands into districts headed by Earls and Barons. Enacts law where Highland chiefs become responsible for the actions of their clan members. Lochabar and Manmore cleared of inhabitants. Revolt insues. James announces rebel lands will be given to informers. Clan feuds wage between the dispossessed and possessed.
International: 1401: Timur the Lame captures Baghdad, destroys the Turkish army sent against him, seizes Damascus. He rules until he dies of fever in 1405. 1429: Battle of the Herrings: Earl of Salisbury besieges Orléans. [Louis XI: 1420–1491] English run out of food and are attacked at Rouvray on the first Sunday in Lent by the French and Scots. Joan of Arc under René of Anjou raises the siege of Orléans; defeating the English under Sir John Talbot (Governor of Anjou & Maine) & Fastolf (Beaumont Castle & Sille-le-Guillaume) at Patay on 18.6.1429. Fastolf escapes to Corbeil & Talbot is captured. Giles de Retz, Marquis de Laval, marshal of France in 1429 murders 6 of his 7 wives, and is ultimately strangled in 1440. 1440: Johann Gutenberg invents moveable type in the ancient Celtic city of Mainz. Bibles are distributed in the German language. The city of Mayapán is destroyed and burned in 1450 A.D. Nachi Cocom is considered the last great Maya Ruler. 1453: Battle of the Castillion: Hundred Year’s War Ends: Charles VII recaptures the city. The Duke of Bedford dies and the English are driven out of Paris. Fastolf remarries and sells his step-son into slavery to English Chief Justice Sir William Gascoigne. 1453: Byzantine Empire ends. Constantine XI, dies defending the city from Ottoman Turks. 1470 A.D: Fortified hilltop Iximché near Tecpán, Guatemala is built. The capital of the Cakchiquel Maya has a 9 foot moat, plazas, ball court, stucco. Warring States Period: Lasts until 1603, when a warrior named Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun of Japan. 1478: Spanish Inquistion: King Ferdinand & Isabella of Castile persecute Muslims, Jews & Illuminati [illuminists] under the Inquisitor General appointed by Rome. The auto de fe: act of faith is a public mass and execution where the accused were tortured and burnt at the stake.Treaty of 1479: Ferdinand and Isabella get the Canaries Islands from Portugal and they are ports of call from Africa to America slave-trade route under John Hawkins of the Plymouth Corporation. English sailors and merchants (who had ventures in Brazil, the Barbary Coast and later the West and East Indies) stop there for food, water, piracy and trade. 1480: Prince Ivan III refuses to pay taxes to the Golden Horde, name of the section of the empire that included Russia. Mongol troops move toward Moscow to put down the revolt, but turn back. Ivan III names himself Czar, Russian for Caesar.
1488-1529 AD
King Edward IV of England’s sons murdered by their uncle and regent Richard III, Duke of Gloucester in the Tower of London. Their mother, Queen Elizabeth Woodville ’s friends are murdered and her marriage invalidated. Richard finishes off the killing with his brother the Duke of Clarence. Battle of Bosworth Field: Leicestershire: Henry VII Tudor, The Earl of Richmond-Lancaster (red rose) assasinates Richard III (white rose). He marries Richard III’s sister Elizabeth of York. The Tudor rose mixes white rose of York, red rose of Lancaster. Henry VII establishes the Star Chamber to prosecute and torture sedition. Great Famine of 1497 recorded in the Irish text Leabhar na Núachongbála: Book of the New Foundation. 1513: Battle of Flodden “The Flowers of the Forest”: James IV of Scotland killed battling his brother-in-law Henry VIII of England. James IV’s son with wife Mary Tudor, James V, succeeds at 17 months old with John Stuart, Duke of Albany, as the regent. Dispossesed earls rebel; recapture their ancestral lands, murder the usurpers and their clan members, and burn castles to the ground. La Bonne Reine: The Good Reigning Queen: Poynings Law: Earl Desmond conspires with François I of France (1499–1524) to drive the English out of Ireland, while Scotland is to render assistance by invading England. The Duke of Albany fails. Gerald the 8th Earl of Kildare charged with sedition, executed in the Tower of London, and added to the Death Toll.
International: Bulgarians massacred. Heinrich Kraemer & Jacob Sprenger, under Pope Innocent VII, publish the Dominican Malleus Malificarum: Witches’ Hammer, to kill women whose property is turned over to the state. [Estimated state murder at 9,000,000. Used for 250 years ] 1489: Treaty of Medina del Campo: In force until 1558. Henry VII and Spain agree to allow trade in all their dominions. English settle the Canaries Islands.Geto Nuovo: Ferdinand II & Isabella expell Jews and Moors from Spain. Ballet of the Chestnuts:Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III deposed by Alexander VI. Alexander throws an orgy in the Vatican. Prostitutes are showered with chestnuts and prizes are given for the most sexual acts by statesman. Lucrezia Borgia is gang-raped and violated by her father, the pope. Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope Alexander gives Spanish and Portuguese the right to divide the New World. Imperialists name the Western Atlantic America in honour of Amerigo Vespucci of Spain. Philip I of Spain murders his son Carlos, dies, and son Charles V takes over. Columbus hunts and destroys 5 million Taíno with dogs and renames their islands [Iere: Land of the Hummingbird = Trinidad. Borikén = Puerto Rico. Bayatikeri = Cuba. Bayaguana = Hispaniola a.k.a Dominica]Juan de la Cosa and his army of the Santa Maria assasinated by Colombian natives. 1500: Vicente Yanez Pinzon, a Spaniard who commanded the Nina on Columbus’s first voyage & Pedro Álvares Cabral, a Portuguese captain on his way to India arrive in Brazil. 1502: King Manuel I of Portugal has Vasco de Gama seize India, deposing the Mughal Empires & seizes Brazil. Narvaez & his army massacred by Florida natives. Fernao de Magalhaes a.k.a Ferdinand Magellan lands at the Cape Verde Islands. 1506: Carlos V seizes Spanish throne by having his mother Juana La Loca of Castile imprisoned as a mad woman, with the embalmed corpse of his father for company. 1512: Laws of Burgos: [Burgos is a city in Castile, Spain] Hatuey (pron ah’-tway), Chief of the Taíno, is captured in Cuba by Hernándo Cortés Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán & Velázquez. He says he would rather go to Hell than convert to Christianity because the Spaniards won’t be there. – from Father Bartholomé de las Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1552). Father Diego de Landa writes Relación de las cosas de Yucatán: An Account of Things in the Yucatán after burning the Mayan Codices, ancient bark paper books, and destroying countless ancient Maya texts and documents. He is considered one of the greatest slaughteres of world cultural history. [Modern archeologists working with the glyphs on the 4 codices they have access to which they named: Dresden, Madrid, Paris & Grolier.] 1513: Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa (pronounced VAHS koh NOO nyayth day bal BOH uh) invades Panama. 1514: Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada invades Columbia Chibcha: People of the Earth decimated. Bacatá Sovereign, the Zipa [People of Chía: The Moon Goddess], ruler of the southern kingdom of Bogotá was Tisquesusa. The Hunza Sovereign, the Zaque [Zaque people descendents of Xué: The Sun God], known today as Tunja was Nemequene. Quesada steals their gold & emeralds. Raids funeral kings of Sogamoso: Sacred City of the SunOct 7, 1517: Battle of Leponto Gulf: Charles V’s son, John of Austria fights the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece. Pope [later Saint] Pius establishes a feast ‘in thanksgiving for the victory.’ and makes the first sunday in October a holiday. Good Friday 1519: Cortez: Hernándo Cortés Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán lands on the Yucatán peninsula at Tabasco, seizes México, takes Emperor Moctezuma II hostage, murders 11 million+ Aztecs and Tarasdcans civilians and priests in the city of Tenochtitlán, completely destroying it in August 31, 1521 and building Mexico City over the ruins. He strangles his mistress La Malinche [malinchista: lover of foreigners, a traitor] who is his translator and mother of his son at his colonial estate and chronicles his murders for King Charles V in 5 Letters (1519-1526). He occupies himself with 19 mistresses given to him by Tabasco locals according to Saint Andrews University and sends Francisco de Ulloa on the ship Alcapulco north to name the Californias [After the Amazon island of gold in the novel the Deeds of Esplandían, Son of Amadis.]. Francisco never returns from Arizona. 1519: Spanish governor of Jamaica sends Alonso Alvarez de Pineda to explore the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico. Sept. 20, 1519: Portuguese navigator Fernao de Magalhaes: Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage to Asia by way of South America by Charles I of Spain lands him in Puerto San Julian & Puerto Santa Cruz Argentina. Strait of Magellan. He is killed by the Philippine Islanders on April 27, 1521. Remaining 2 ships sail to the Spice Islands, Indonesia. Lieutenant Juan Sebastian del Cano's Victoria, crossed the Indian Ocean to Spain.1520: Blood-Bath: Massacre of Swedish nobles occurrs 3 days after the coronation of Christian II King of Denmark, Sweden & Norway. The victims were invited to attend the coronation and were put to the sword, under the plea of being enemies of the true Church. Bristol company under Thomas Tyson invades México & Santo Domingo. The city of K’umarcaaj Utatlán, ancient capital of the Maya Quiché, Guatemala is burnt to the ground by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524. The Aztecs kill Pedro de Alvarado. Giovanni da Verrazano, an Italian navigator in the service of France, enters New York harbor through the strait which bears his name. He & other European ships raid Minca villages for slaves. 1525: Grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights Albert of Hohenzollern 1526: Mughal Empire: Timur’s descendant named Babur, also spelled Babar, establishes the Mongol state in India. Mughal comes from the Persian word mughul, meanng Mongol 1527: Siege of Rome: Holy Roman Emperor & King of Spain Charles V Habsburg’s troops destroy Rome under control of François I of France & Catherine de Medici. Charles's troops seize Milan & Sicily from France. Francisco Montejo,The Advanced, the conqueror of Yucatán in 1527, 1527-1529: Sebastian Cabot, son of John Cabot invades the Rio de la Plata, Parana & Paraguay rivers in present-day Argentina & Paraguay looking for a white king whose realm was supposed to be rich in silver.
1529 -1553 AD
James V invades the highlands. Donald MacKay of Strathnaver, Ruari Mac Leod of Lewis, Alexander Mac Leod of Dunvegan, John Moydertach, Mac Lean of Dowart, James Mac Donald of Islay surrender their clans. Reformation Parliament: Henry VIII cheats on his wife Catalina (Catherine) of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand & Isabella, Juana la Loca’s sister and recent widow of his brother Arthur [Mary I], with: Mary Boleyn, Anne Boleyn [Elizabeth I], Bessie Blount, Elizabeth Blount [Duke of Richmond] and establishes the Church of England: Anglican Church to divorce after Pope Clement VII refuses his annullment request. Ann Boleyn, her brother and lovers: Mark Smeaton, Sir Henry Norris, Sir Francis Weston, William Brereton are executed on charges of plotting regicide and her marriage is declared invalid. Henry marries her lady-in-waiting Jane Seymour who dies after giving birth to Edward VI. Anne of Cleves is annulled, he marries and murders Catherine Howard and all contenders for the throne. Catherine Parr is the final wife. 1536: Act of Parliament & Annexation of Wales Bill a.k.a First Act of Union / Acts of Uniformity & Supremacy: Irish, Welsh, and Cornish people exterminated. Books and genealogies burned. Only English to be used in all church services.Maisters or governours of the mystery and comminulte of barbours and surgeons of London Act, 1540: Provides the first legal supply of bodies for dissection. Siege of Boulogne: Henry VIII vs François I of France. Scottish rebels at the  Battle of Pinkie convicted of English treason and hanged. James V is imprisoned in the Tower of London and dies in poor health. Mary Stewart, Queen of the Scots, crowned at 9 months and smuggled to France. Her regent is Marie de Guise. 1547: Henry VIII dies. Edward VI accedes at 9 years old. The Duke of Somerset is ruler of the kingdom. Vagrants Act: Statute of Legal Settlement (1 Edw. VI. c.3): The poor can be detained as slaves and branded.
International: Diet of Speyer: The Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther nails his theses to the Church of Wittenburg, imprisons Christian II and converts Christian III of Denmark to Lutheranism. Luther publishes the book On Jews and Their Lies. Siege of Vienna: Ottoman Empire captures Hungary, slaughters, rapes and enslaves women, and pile the skulls up in mounds. L’Ancien Régime: French Bourbon Kings: Louis XIII, XIV, XV & XVI. Jean Chauvin a.k.a John Calvin flees Paris. French General Edict urging extermination of Calvinists a.k.a Huguenots as heretics. Nobility & Clergy are granted tax exemptions while the people are taxed and starved. Their exported produce makes France One of Europe’s Greatest Trading Nations. Bastilles: Prisons are built where people are interned without trial. Saint James becomes the patron saint of the conquistadors. His name in spanish is Santiago. 1531: Columbia: Diego de Ordaz’s lieutenant Martinez tells of being rescued from shipwreck, conveyed inland, & entertained at Omoa by El Dorado: the Gilded One. Chibchas tell Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada the legend of Guatavita Lake & the golden man who worships the sun. Quesada founds Santa Fé de Bogotáexplorers & starts desperately searching for the city from Bogotá, never to find it. Philipp von Hutten tries looking for it in Venezuela but has no luck. 1536: Mexican Inquisition: Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga, first Bishop and Archbishop of Mexico (died 1548) establishes the Inquisition under Pope Clemente VII on the Yucatán peninsula in conjunction with Don Francisco Marroquín, Bishop of Guatemala. Marcos de Niza journeys north from Mexico in search of Cabeza de Vaca’s Seven Cities of Cibola of the Southwest. Viceroy Mendoza sends Vasquez de Coronado on the 1540-1542: Quivira Expedition and then sends Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo to conquer the California coast. Cabrillo is killed by the natives of Santa Catalina Island. 1547: Reign of Terror: Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible. Don Hernándo de Soto, Knight Commander of the Order of St. James of Compostela, Governor of Island of Cuba, Adelantado of Florida, “Child of the Sun”, kills the Yuchi and Chickasaw Nation for gold. He massacres the Cherokee nation, kidnaps the Lady of Cofitachequi, and sells them as slaves to the mines of the West Indies and Spain. The Lady escapes. Juan Pardo is his henchman. Portuguese Vasco de Gama voyages to Sri Lanka. Diego Fernandez Correa writes in the Luciads, that he cut off the hands, ears, and noses of 800 Indian Muslims who fell into his hands off the coast of India. He tied up the rest of them and set their ships on fire.
1553-1601 AD
Edward VI contracts tuberculosis and the doctors poison him with stimulants laced with arsenic. Jane Grey becomes Queen of England for 9 days and is assasinated by Mary Tudor. Mary I “Bloody Mary” marries King Phillip II of Spain uniting England with Spain, Portugal, and the Holy Roman Empire. King Philip II and Queen Mary I kill over 300, imprison Elizabeth and Thomas Wyatt in the Tower of London, and Philip II assasinates William I of Orange in 1584. 1558: Mary dies of ovarian cancer and Elizabeth becomes Queen. Battle of Langside:Philip II proposes to Elizabeth I to regain England. She refuses, is excommunicated, and the pope authorizes her murder. Philip II picks his nephews Rudolfo & Ernest as successors, murders his son Carlos when he revolts and invades London. Sir Francis Drake destroys the armada. Rudolfo plots to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of the Scots, but is put to death. R.P.R.: Religion prétendue réformée: Regent [Huguenot] Conde is murdered. 1560: Bloody Wedding, Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: Mary Queen of the Scots’ husband Francis II is poisoned by his mother Catherine de Medici who seizes the French throne. She orders the murders of the Huguenots [estimated 70,000] at the marriage ceremonies of Henri of Navarre & Marguerite of France. The bells of Saint Germain l’Auxerrois rung as a signal for the massacre to begin. Gaspard de Coligny’s body flung from a window to show Guise. Mary escapes to Scotland. She marries her cousin Lord Darnley. John Knox, a Scottish Presbyterian reformer, informs Mary she cannot rule Scotland because she is female. Her half-brother makes a play for the throne and is assasinated by James Hepwell. Hepwell attempts to kill Mary’s husband (The husband is strangled by someone else), and marries her. Mary is taken hostage by Scottish nobles and forced to abdicate the throne to her son James VI. Mary flees to England under the reign of Elizabeth I and is imprisoned for 19 years. She is beheaded for conspiring to take the English throne and being an accessory to murder. James VI’s regency passed to Earl of Lennox (murdered), Earl of Mar (murdered), and Earl of Morton (beheaded). James is abducted by the Earl of Gowrie and escapes. Plague continues. Bearbaiting, bullbaiting: dogs attack a bear or bull tied to a post .1595: Sir Walter Raleigh searches fruitlessly for the Chibcha: Holder of the Earth Kingdom of El Dorado: The Gilded One, believing it to be a city on Lake Parima up the Orinoco in Venezuela. He brings the South American potato to his Myrtle Grove estate in the Irish town Eochaille-Youghal [Yew Salmon: pronounce it YAWL] in the Diocese of Cloyne, Avondhu: Blackwater River, Dingle Penninsula, County Cork: Red Oats. Battle of the Red Coats / Nine Year War: Ulsterman Shane O’Neill kills his English half-brother, invades the aristocratic only Pale of Dublin, and is poisoned at a banquet by one of the Queen’s hitmen. His head is hung on the north-west gate of Dublin. George Winter commands the naval squadron looking for La Roche, a Frenchman reported to be preparing some private expedition against Ireland. Elizabeth sells Ulster to the London Guilds. The Irish are hanged, murdered, sold into slavery, or expelled. Harpists and bards of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales are hung. Their schools of learning are shut down. Tartan dress and silk is outlawed. Women who disobey are called whores and tortured by drowning, branding, boiling to death, and having their eyes pulled out of their sockets. For the Reliefe of the Poore: [The Old Poor Law or Great English Poor Law Act] (39 Eliz. c.3, 43 Eliz. I c.2, 1598) forces the poor to sign over any land they own; starved and made to work for food until they die. The workhouses are called Pauper Palaces
International: 1555: The Peace of Augsburg: Jean Bodin’s De la Demonomanie des Sorciers: Of the punishments deserved by Witches. states that torture is required for the security of the state. Pope Paul IV creates the Roman Ghetto and issues papal bull Cum nimis absurdum, forcing Jews to live in a specified area. A pass is needed to go outside of the ghetto; closed from the inside during Easter Week and from the outside during Christmas or Pesach. Alonso de Ercilla y Zuñiga’s poem La Araucana (1569-1589) has Chileans resist Spanish invaders. Sir Francis Drake, a slave trader in the Carribean with his cousin Sir John Hawkins of the Plymouth Corporation & Mayor of Plymouth, invades Puerto Rico with the Count of Cumberland, destroys 2.5 million Brazilian Tupi-Guarani and Tapuya, destroys the village of Portobelo in Panama, tries to seize Nicaragua from Spain, discovers San Francisco Bay/New Albion on the ship Golden Hind, writes of the Miwok and sails to England with stolen silver. [He dies of dysentery later in 1596 in the Carribean]. English colonists settle Roanoke Island. Governor John White returns to England in 1587 on Drake’s ship after his daughter Eleanor Dare gives birth to a daughter named Virginia: Virgin Queen Elizabeth I. 100 years later gray-eyed Hatteras Indians tell of grandparents who could talk in a book & of a ghost ship called Sir Walter Raleigh’s Ship that appeared sometimes offshore. Peruvian Inquisition: Inca Empire that extends from Panama to Chile is demolished by the Spaniards. 30 million are killed and only 1.3 million remain. The Inquistion Museum in Lima, Peru where sacred books were burnt under Diego de LLanda contains punishment cells. Documented in Garcilaso de la Vega’s The Royal Commentaries (1609). Mexican Nuevo León Province governor Luis de Carvajal is declared a heretic and burned alive along with his mother, brother, and 5 sisters in 1596 at the Palace of the Inquisition in Mexico City. Isabel de Carvajal de Andrade and Leonor de Carvajal are strangled with iron collars and burned at the stake. Ladino is outlawed. 1598: Treaty of Vervins: Finance Minister & Cardinal Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma (Seville,1552/3 — Valladolid, 1625), the first of the validos: strongmen through whom the later Spanish Hapsburg monarchs ruled, with secretary Rodrigo Calderón establish the Inquisition in the kingdom of Naples Lerma uses his influence against a recognition of the independence of the Low Countries: Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg; declares peace with France. Mazatlan Revolt:Spanish build mining camps and a missionary fort in Durango. The natives revolt and destroy the mission and mines. Inuit of Alaska kill Englishman Martin Frobisher.

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