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Scottish History Timeline: 1st to 9th Centuries
- 30, 000 BC
- Homosapians discovered by archeologists dated at this time period. Homo Habilis is 5 million years ago.
- 12,000 B.C. - 8000 B.C.
- Ice Age: global glacial melting. A meteor shower devastates the planet causing massive tidal waves. Legend says when the sea level lowers migrations occur from Grand Dolina, Burgos, Spain [pink quartz ax/27 people at Sima de los Huesos: Bone Pit] through the Strait Bab al Mandeb: Gate of Tears at Eritrea: The Red Sea,.
- 7000 BC - 5000 B.C.
- Second glacial melting. Ice Age ends. Archeologists discover wood ash below layers of peat suggesting earliest settlers burned clearings. Tumulus of Kercado: Red Goddess Tomb at Carnac: Red Place in Brittany France built 5,700 BC.
- 4000 BC - 3000 BC
- Sea-borne immigrants arrive from Europe with: cattle, grain, sheep, pigs, barley, and wheat. Neolithic passage graves, gallery graves, and community graves found. Bronze Age 3,400 B.C trading in ores, gold and baltic amber funerary breastplates, daggers. 3,201 BC Sumerians record from Feb 17th in the month of Hilu to March 30th in the month of Eshil the Great Flood. the Flood of Noah in the Tanakh. Meteor shower shortly before 3000 B.C. results in tidal waves along the coasts of Europe & North America
International: Serre Paradis city of the Arecomici: Fertile Ones Celts at Nîmes. The menhir of Courbessac called La Poudriere stands in a field, near the airstrip, a limestone monolith of over 2 metres in height. Uruk period of Sumerian civilisation: Wheat is their grain. Cities of: Ur [sacked 2004 BC], Eridu, Nippur, Kish & Uruk [sacked 2000 BC]. Upper and lower Egypt unified in 3,200 B.C. Caral City, Perú
- 3000 BC - 2000 BC
- .Scara Brae site: Archeologists find compact houses, sheep and cattle bones, necklaces. The people are called the Beaker Folk because of their handleless pottery. Megalithic stone circles, henges, cairns, individual burial stone cists, and burial pits found. Bronze Age work from Greece called Minoan by Sir Arthur Evans after the archeological sites founder Minos Kalokairinos of 1877, who is named after King Minos. Their city, Acrothere, under volcanic ash is on the island of Thera. Ptolemy VI & Cleopatra Is Temple of Kom Ombo in Upper Egypt, 180 BC, call the people Keftiu. Hieroglyphics have also been transcribed as Caphtor: Grain People. The untranslated Greek Hieroglyphics are called Linear A. Iron Age Mycanean hieroglyphics called Linear B. Bronze age Phrygia [Turkey] home of King Midas texts untranslated.
International: 2700 BC: Emperor Huangdi & Emperess Xilingshi find white silkworm moths in the mulberry trees. The cocoons dropped in water unravel to silk. 2600 BC: Maya civilization at Cuello, Belize cultivating chocolate, chilis, vanilla, papayas, & pineapples.
- 2000 BC - 730 BC
- Celts, who are Indo-Europeans descended from the Kurgan: Queens Tomb civilisation of Russia, arrive in Europe. They settle in France and move into the Iberian peninsula. In Hallstatt, Oberösterreich: Upper Austria 3,000+ graves are discovered in a salt-mine next to the Hallstättersee: Hallstatt Sea. Archeologists under Ramsauer in 1846 discover gold torcs, armlets, brooches, jewelry, weapons, drinking vessels, and mirrors. The word Kurgan coined by UCLA Archaeology Professor Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania Jan 23, 1921 – Los Angeles Feb 2, 1994). 730 BC: Settlers from Chalcis, Ionic Greece, arrive in Sicily & name it Zankle: Sickle, from the shape of the harbor.
International: Annau, Turkmenistan establishes Silk Road. Olmec Empire: Anahuac. Gerion of Cush invades Spain in 1883 B.C, mines gold and is slain by the Egyptians. His sons flee to Ireland, the Scottish Hebrides, and the Toltec Empire. 15th cen BC: Hurrian area ranging from the Iranian mountains to Syria becomes Mitanni state. 18th Dynasty [1567 to 1320 B.C. King Tut]. Queen Hatshepsut (pronounced hat SHEHP soot) a.k.a Ma Kara 1503-1483 BC. of the 18th Dynasty at Karnak. Jezabel of Tyre establishes worship of Phoenician dieties. Elijah kills 450 priests of Baal and flees to the Kingdom of Judah. 14th cen: Hittite Empire under Suppiluliumas I defeats Mitanni & reduces its king, Mattiwaza, to vassalage. Assyria is independent. 1159 BC: Icelands Hekla III volcano erupts, expelling 12 cubic kilometres of rock into the atmosphere and causing large-scale failures of the crop harvest in Egypt. The presence of significant quantities of volcanic soot in the air prevents sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrests global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC. Royal tomb-builders of Set Maat her imenty Waset a.k.a Deir el Medina set up a labor strike when their food provisions are reduced. Pharoah Rameses III of the Twentieth Dynasty & Queen Iset defeat the Aegean Sea Peoples in two battles. The surviving sea people set up Philistia ,Papyrus Harris I a.k.a Papyrus British Museum 9999 purchased by collector Anthony Charles Harris (1790–1869) chronicles the Pharoahs building of Luxor, Karnak, funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu, the plot on his life over the successor to the throne: Ramses IV with Queen Iset-Isis or Pentaware with Queen Tey, and his vast donations of land, gold statues and monumental construction to Egypts various temples at Piramesse, Heliopolis, Memphis, Athribis, Hermopolis, This, Abydos, Coptos, El Kab and other cities in Nubia and Syria. Queen Athaliah of Judah kills all her male descendants except for Jehosheba and Joash & is overthrown by priests in 837 BC. Queen Artemisia: Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilds Babylon with hanging gardens. Lamanai, Belize: Submerged Mayan Crocodile city built by the New River lagoon with step pyramids.
- 730 BC - 381 BC:
- Start of Iron Age, La Tène culture. Celts build oppida, fortified cities that control trade routes and move into the Italian peninsula and Alps. Tribes who move to the British Isles are: Britons: White Cow of Everlasting Milk, Gaels: Love, Cymri: White Grain Queen Stone shrine & metal forgery built at Cadbury Hill. Frankfurt limestone hill-graves are called Altkönig: Old King. Rome: Numa Pompilius (April 21, 753 BC - 674 BC) becomes the second king of Rome in 716 BC when founder Romulus a.k.a Janus Quirinus (771 BC-716 BC: born to a princess) goes up to the sky [Senatorial murder. Twins Romulus & Remus were ordered killed by their grand-uncle the King of Alba Longa, but on the banks of the Albula River a.k.a Tiber they are rescued by lupa: prostitute or she-wolf a.k.a Larentina: goddess of death & mother of the Lares, Greek Mania: mother of the Manes. Mother Rhea Silva aka Ilia a Vestal Virgin, is sent to drown in the water, the Tiber married her and flooded because of the injustice. Albula is Celtic for white with sediment. Anio: water from heaven: St. Anne flows into it. Janus a.k.a Anis wife was Jana a.k.a Diana Greek legend says Trojan hero Aeneas, built the city after the destruction of Troy by the Greeks in the Trojan War. Some versions combine the two, making Romulus & Remus descendants of Aeneas] Parallel Lives records Pompilius as curing the pestilence of Italy in 724 BC. with the Anchilia shield. Rome is surrounded by seven wooded hills in central Italy. The Italian Peninsula juts into the Mare Nostrum: Our Sea: Mediterranean Sea. 600 BC: Emperor Lucius Tarquinius Priscus orders the Cloaca Maxima: Great Sewer built by Etruscan engineers and forced labor from the Roman poor. Romes sewage is carried into the River Tiber. 510 BC: Rome seizes power from the Etruscans. 430 BC: Plague pit with 1000 tombs discovered in Kerameikon, Athens by Efi Baziotopoulou-Valavani. Thucydides describes the panic caused by the plague which struck Athens & killed one third of the population. He wrote that bodies were abandoned in temples & streets, to be subsequently collected & hastily buried. 400 BC: Socrates trialed & executed. Pythagoreans executed and under the Edict of Italy flee to Lucania & Thebes. Greek Ambassador Megasthanese visits Chandragupta Mouryas Indian empire and writes that the Andhras are a powerful Nationality possessing thirty towns, 100,000 infantry, 2000 cavalry, 1000 elephants. 398 BC: Romans seize the Etruscan city of Veii. 383 BC: Emperor Gratian invades the French Dauphiné, seizes the mountain Oppidum Cularo, where the Drac: Dragon & Isère rivers merge from the Allobroges & renames the area of Belladonna: Dark Sacred Tree – Gratianopolis /Grenoble. [Site Saint-Martin-de-Miséré 994 AD & Hercynian forest]. Gratian is murdered in Lyon by the Roman armies of Britain. Celts are challenged by Rome for control of the North sea. Chief Brennus clashes with the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great and destroys them at the Alia river. Celts enter the Senate and Senator Marcus Papiris savagely beats a Celtic warrior with a staff. The Celts burn the city of Rome to the ground in 387 BC, destroy the Oracle of Delphi, and ransom Rome for a 1000 pounds of gold.
- 381 BC - 298 BC:
- Battus à Bollène: Romans fight the Allobroges: White Cow of Everlasting Milk People from Oppidum Cularo & the Arvenes: Seed People in Provence. Vadomarius chieftain of the Allamanic tribe Brisgavi / Breisgauer murdered in 368 by the Romans according to Ammianus Marcellinus. Today the southern region of the Black Forest is named Breisgau. Jan 2, 366 BC: Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine to battle the Romans. First Samnite War: 343-341 BC: In Samnium [Basilicata, Campania]. Samnites: Summer People establish a garrison in Naples. Rome agrees to a peace treaty. Second Samnite War: 326-304 BC: Romans violate the peace treaty, invading the Liri river valley. Roman consuls captured & establish a five-year treaty. Romans return for revenge & win. 315 BC: Rome loses at Lautulae. 312 BC: Rome constructs Via Appia military road. 311 BC: Etruscan cities join the Samnites against Rome. 306 BC: Via Valeria military road.
International: Alexander drives Pharoah Cingris from Egypt into Ethiopeia & founds Alexandria. Greek-Macedonian Arsinoe marries the King of Thrace. He is killed in battle and she escapes to Egypt, where her brother Ptolemy II reigns with his wife, Arsinoe. The first Arsinoe ousts the second Arsinoe (the wife) and marries her brother to become Arsinoe II. She encourages worship of her as a Goddess. Ptolemy II founds the Royal Library of Alexandria and the Musaeum: The Temple of the Muses (museum in English). 300 BC: Greek Explorer Pytheas (pronounced PIHTH ee uhs) sailed around the British Isles & enters the North Sea, mentioning a land called Thule (pronounced THOO lee), believed to be Norway. The Mayan city of Chicanná: House of Snakes Jaws is built in Campeche, México. The doorway to the city is the mouth of Itzamná, the creator god, in the form of the Earth Monster. The high priests enter the Maya underworld and emerge transfigured. Linked with Becán: Road of the Serpent and Xpujil: Place of the Cattails nearby. .
- 298 BC - 133 BC:
- Third Samnite War: 298-290 BC: Romans invade northern Etruria & Umbria battling the Samnites: Summer People, Lucanians: Raven People, Bruttians & Thurioi: River People, invading Croton, Lokroi, and Rhegium: Red King City, Decius Vibelius massacres the inhabitants of Rhegium. Rome founds colonies in Apulia & Lucania, the most important of which was Venuzia/Venusia: Venosa, Apulia [Apulia: Phoebus Apollo]. General Barbula placed there to prevent Samnites & Lucanians from joining Pyrrhus army. Romans defeat a Gallic army at Lake Vadimon in Etruria & annex the land of the Senones: ager Gallicus along the Adriatic. Battle of Heraclea: Pyrrhic War: 280 B.C: Rome invades Heraclea, an Ancient Greek city in Lucania, S Italy, not far from the Gulf of Tarentum. King Pyrrhus of Epirus defeats Publius Valerius Laevinus at the river Siris with the combined forces of Greeks from Taranto: Bull Place [S. Italy: Philocharis Ainesias navy], Thurii, Metapont, Heraclea & Epirus [Bulgaria: Forces of: Antigonus II Gonatas of Antioch, King of Syria, Egypt]. Bronze tablets giving Roman municipal laws found nearby. Diocletian seizes Antioch & proclaims Turkey Eastern Rome: Asia Minor First Punic War: Sicilian War 264-241 BC: Punic a Roman word for Poemy: Phoenicia: Carthage. Volsinii, the last free Etruscan city destroyed. Appius Claudius Caudex invades Messana [N Sicily], Lucius Caecilius invades Palermo, Metellus Caius Duilius invades Syracuse [S Sicily]. Sicilians sold as slaves. Marsala seiged. Carthaginians under Hamilcar Barca (b290 BC- d228 BC) hold out for 8 years. Hamilcar moves his operation base to Spain. Rome controls the peninsula from Sicily to the Apennine frontier. Battle of Telamon / Battle of Talamone: 225 BC. Rome exterminates the Senones: Ancient Ones of Sénonais, France. The Parisii Breuci: White Trout People settle in Par-Ys-Lutetia: Paris. The Boii: Milk Peoples forces of 50000 infantry & 20000 cavalry caught in the Po Valley between Lucius Aemilius Papus & Gaius Atilius Regularis. Regulus beheaded at Via Aurelia. Papus legions pass from Liguria to Emilia devastating the country of the Boii, they reach Ariminium & from there to the Via Flaminia & Rome. Celtic dead number 40000 & 10 000 prisoners including King Concolitanus. Second Punic War 218-201 BC: Hannibals War: Battaglia della Trebbia: Battle of Trebbia: 218 BC Gaules & Ligurians with Hannibal Joy of Baal Barcas (b247 BC - d183 BC ) & younger brother Mago ambush Titus Sempronius Longus at the Trebbia: Trinity River by concealing themselves among the streambeds. At dawn, Hannibals Numidian light cavalry attack with elephants from the front while Mago comes from the rear. Romans drown. 217 BC: Hannibal wounds Gnaeus Scipio at the Ticinius River Canne della Battaglia: Battle of Cannae: 216 BC: Hannibal routes the 50,000+ army of Lucius Aemilius Paullus & C.Terrentius Varro on the Apulian plain in the vicinity of Cannae. Roman knights gold rings are collected in baskets & later poured out onto the floor of the Carthaginian senate. Lucius Aemilius Paulus & 80 senators killed at the Numidian tribunal. Varro escapes. M. Junius Pera decrees the defeat as divine wrath. He orders live burial of two Vestal Virgins & the human sacrifice of a Gallic & Greek man & woman. Gnaeus Scipios Marseille naval warships attack Spain. Indibilis of the Illergetes, overlord of the tribes of northern & central Spain fight back & lose. Hannibals brother Hasdrubal escapes with his army to Italy from Spain but is defeated & killed at Metaurus in 207 BC.
International: 256 BC: Gaius Atilius Regularis invades Carthage & informs the Carthaginians they must give up Sicily, Sardinia & pay an annual tribute to Rome. Carthaginians hire the Spartan general Xanthippus to fight Regularis. The Roman army is trampled by elephants. Roman navy is beached & drowns. Regularis is executed in Carthage. Rome withdraws from Carthage. Second Punic War: 202 BC: Rome seizes Libya & establishes the Africa Proconsularis which has its administrative centre at Carthage. 202 B.C. - 220 A.D: Han Dynasty of China Third Punic War: Destruction of Carthage: 149-146 BC: Scipio the Younger, captures the city of Carthage, burns it to the ground & sells the survivors into slavery. In 133 & 123 B.C., two Roman tribunes try to help the poor. Tiberius Gracchus & his brother, Gaius Gracchus, promote a program to distribute state-owned land to the poor. The majority of the Senate oppose them, & both brothers are assassinated. 138-109 B.C: Diplomat Zhang Qian (pronounced jahng chee ehn, & also spelled Chang Ch’ien) travels under Chinese Emperor Wudi (Wu-ti) to the Aral Sea, Uzbekistan. Laid the foundation for the silk trade between China & the Roman Empire.
- 113 BC - 44 BC
- 113 BC: Cimbri: White Grain Goddess Celts destroy four Roman armies in Arausio, Gaule where the LArc de Orange stands. Battle of Vercellae: Cimbri: White Goddess People, Helvetii: Sun People & Teutones: Tribe battle Emperor Lucius Cornelius Sulla at Raurii. Ambiorix of the Senones escapes & dissappears. 100BC: Belgae of Gaule set up Kingdom in South Britain. 73 BC: Spartacus, the slave leader begins his revolt at Capua against Gnaeus Magnus Pompey. Roman general Pompey conquered eastern Asia Minor, Syria, & Judea. He returned to Rome a popular hero, but the Senate refused to recognize his victories. As a result, Pompey & two other Roman leaders - Julius Caesar & Marcus Lucinius Crassus - formed a three-man political alliance called the First Triumvirate in 60 B.C. Crassus died in warfare in 53 B.C. Other Roman leaders then tried to split the two surviving members of the Triumvirate. 62 AC: Allobroges under Chief Catugnat seize Valence & attack Roman General Lentinus in Provence. Oppidum Solonium invaded. De Bello Gallico: Gallic Wars: 58 BC - 51 BC: Julius Caesar attacks the Helvetti: Sun People under Orgetorix: Golden Boar King who are migrating to France. Caesars 8 legions kill 60% of the 470,000 population & the rest escape into Helvetia, the mountains of Switzerland. [Helvetia is the female personification of Switzerland. She has braided hair, wreath, flowing gown, spear & a shield with the Swiss flag]. He sends Caius Volusensis in a warship to attack the Morini: Great Sea People and to survey the coastline for an invasion of Britain. 55 - 44 BC: Julius Caesar invades Britain for its wealth of tin and pearls after enslaving and plundering the Aduatuci Celts of Gaule. 80 war ships in two legions, Legio VII & Legio X invade Dover and are met by mass forces gathering on the hills and cliffs overlooking the shore. The Romans look for an open beach further up the coast at Walmer. Roman cavalry and exposed ships are destroyed by a fierce storm and withdraw. 800 ships built lower for easier beaching return to Walmer. King Cassivellaunus of the Trinovantes-Catuvellauni: Trinity of Grains (modern Herfordshire), the Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci & Cassi, engage in guerrilla warfare against the Romans. Cassivellaunus stronghold is sieged, but the four kings of Kent: Clear Water Place: Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segovax attack the Roman camp on the coast. A tribute is agreed on with Commius, king of the Atrebates (modern West Sussex) acting for a time as Caesar's personal representative, and Caesar returns to Gaule. Siege of Alesia: 51 BC Aduatuci Celts under Vercingetorix fight back. Caesar kills 40,000 Gaules, but is routed. Vercingetorix & 800 men escape to Gergovia. Caesar attacks Gergovia, Vercingetorix surrenders, is paraded through Rome, then executed. 43 BC: Lieutenant Munatius Plancus forms a Roman Colony at Oppidum Lugdunum: Raven Fortress [Lyon, France] and declares himself Governor of Gaule. The three parts of Gaule mentioned by Caesar meet at Lyon and Plancus seat is there. The Celtic sun god Lugh (Light) is equated by the Romans to Mercurius + dunum: hill-fort in Gaulish. Lugs totem is a cock (rooster), which modern French people associate with le coq.
International:Altun Ha: Stone Water City built in Belize. Temple of the Green Tomb with jade figurines, mounds, dam and aqueduct. The commercial trading center runs for a thousand years. Jugurthine War: 112 BC Emperor Lucius Cornelius Sulla against King Jugurtha of Numidia. Marius army defeats hims 106 BC. 48 BC: Battle of Pharsalus: Thessaly, Greece between Gaius Julius Caesar & his son-in-law Gnaeus Magus Pompey. Pompey flees to Alexandria & is murdered by Ptolomey XIII, Cleopatra VIIs brother. The Royal Library of Alexandria, containing 700,000+ scrolls is burnt to a crisp by Julius Caesar. Caesar kills Ptolomey, impregnates Cleopatra & restores her throne.
- 44 BC - 19 AD
- Roman Revolution: Julius Caesar is stabbed to death by the Roman Senate in the toilets behind a theatre. Triumviri reipublicae constituendae: Caesars great-nephew Octavian shares power with Lepidus [Hispania/Africa] & Antonius/Mark Antony [Gaule/Judea/Media/ Parthia/Armenia/Egypt/Libya/Syria] until Mark Antony declares Ptolemy XV Caesar a.k.a Caesarion: Little Caesar, son of Julius Caesar & Cleopatra VII of Egypt heir to the throne. 40 B.C.: The Greek geographer and historian Strabo writes of communities of Celtic women living in Gaule (in present-day France) and the sacred sexual rituals they perform with one another. Battle of Actium: Octavians Legio VI Victrix & VI Ferrata capture Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, kill Caesarion, and rule Egypt. Octavian names himself Caesar Augustus the Principate: & rules as emperor with his wife Livia Drusilla. Antony & Cleopatras three children are paraded through the streets of Rome in golden chains. The girl is married off to the King of Numidia & the two boys are killed. Marsi & Chatti War: The Chatti: Grain People Celts of Germany are massacred and survivors battle Octavian Octavian builds the 353 mile long Upper Germanic Limes a.k.a Rhaetian Limes from the North Sea at Katwijk in the Netherlands along the Rhine to Eining/Kelheim on the Danube. The fortification contains 60 castles and 900 watchtowers. 29-13 BC: Cantabrian War: Octavian sends Legio I Augusta, Legio II Augusta, Legio IV Macedonica, Legio V Alaudae, Legio VI Victrix, Legio IX Hispana, Legio X Gemina, Legio XX Valeria Victrix, Ala II Gallorum, Cohors II Gallorum, Ala II Thracum Victrix Civium Romanorum, Cohors IV Thracum Aequitata, Ala Parthorum, Ala Augusta to Spain to steal Asturi gold and Cantabrian iron. The Cantabri and Asturi Celts fight back with guerilla warfare, hiding in the mountains, and attacking with ranged weapons. Strabo writes that the Cantabri sing hymns of victory while being crucified because they have died soldiers and free men. He mentions suicide by sword, fire. Silius Italicus writes the poison they use is made from the seeds of the yew tree, a plant with mythic significance. Octavians son Tiberius Nero is the next emporer and he sends Legio VI and X Gemina to Zaragoza. The governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, Servius Sulpicius Galba, marches to Rome with Legio VI and overthrows Tiberius who kills himself. The resistance continues for seventy more years even though Rome considers the Cantabri surrendered. 19 AD: Battle of Teutonberg Forest: King Arminius of the Chatti kills a Roman general and escapes into the Teutonberg forest. Rome sends an army, calvary, and ships over German lakes and discover bleached bones of dead Roman soldiers in forest groves. The Roman army moves toward Gaule, where they think Arminius is, and are killed by quicksand and drowning. Surviving soldiers are paid off, sent home, and honored with a feast of bravery. The losing Roman general is poisoned.
- 23 - 61 AD
- Celtic Frisii revolt on having to furnish oxen, wives, children, and land to the Romans and gibbet them. Romans send in entire calvary and lose. Deserters tell Roman historian Tacitus that 900 Romans were cut to pieces in Braduenna wood and another 400 were slaughtered near a house. In the city of Rome Emporer Tiberius Nero kills nobles and puts their money into his private account. Nobles commit suicide so their wills are valid. Tiberius is finally smothered to death with blankets. Caligula accedes the throne, goes mad, bankrupts the treasury of Rome, invades Gaule & is assasinated. 44 AD: Emperor Claudius invades Britain against Cassivelaunus’s great-grandson King Cymbeline a.k.a Conubelinus of the Trinovantes. Emperor Claudius poisoned by his wife, and Nero is the next emporer. Nero massacres Druids on the Isle of Mon at Anglesey (the Druid women wear black and dishevel their hair. Lucans Pharsalia written), poisons his brother, murders the consul, tortures Epicharis on the rack, butchers 20 men and has his mother hacked to death by soldiers. Roman noblemen kill their relatives and offer them up as sacrifical victims to the gods.
- 61 - 79 AD
- Roman soldiers flog Queen Boudica of Britain, and rape her two daughters. Queen Boudica of the Iceni leads the Celtic tribes of Iceni and Trinovantes to massacre the Romans at Colchester and burn their temple. She is defeated at London and poisons herself rather than to become a prisoner. Cadbury Hill in Britain shows evidence of a massacre in the middle of the 1st century A.D. Celts are killed in the streets and at the gates of their hill fort. Helvetti and Treveri Celts of Gaule massacred and sold into slavery. 69-70: The Roman navy is destroyed by the Germans at Cremona. Batavi Rising: The Bructeri of Hellweg and wise woman Veleda, the spiritual leader of the Batavi rising. She is captured by the Romans. The Goths, a Germanic tribe from Scandinavia (Norway, Iceland, Sweden, Denmark), divide in two, with the Visigoths moving to the mouth of the Danube (Romania), and the Ostrogoths to the north shore of Black Sea (Ukraine). Nero is assasinated, Galba assasinated, Otho abdicates throne, Vitellius is murdered, and Emporer Vespasian dies under rebel soldiers. Rome is burnt and looted and a senator is decapitated by the mob. Emporer Titus ascends throne and is assasinated Domitian ascends throne.
- 80 - 126 AD
- Julius Agricola invades Scotland and enslaves the people of Ross, Dalgoan, Bochastle, and Ardargie. Highland Scots attack under Galgacus using guerilla warfare and win. Agricola withdraws to Rome in defeat and is killed by Domitian. Domitian subdues the Chatten-Kelten population of the Main River with military general Trajan. The Celtic city of Moguntiacum (Mainz/Mayence. 30 miles west of Frankfurt on the West side of the Rhine) becomes the capital city of the Roman province Germania Superior on October 27, 90AD. The tombstone of the Celt Blussus and his family is at the Oppidum, now Castle Weisenauand. Domitian is assasinated in 96 AD. Nerva is the next Emperor, dying in 98 AD. Emperor Trajan invades the kingdom of Dacia, on the northern bank of the Danube River in 101 AD, conquering King Decebalus. He seizes the Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa, destroys it and is granted the title Dacicus Maximus. In 106 AD he resettles the entire area with Romans making it Romania. In 113 AD he invades Armenia and annexes it to the Roman Empire. He then seizes Babylon [Babil, Iraq], Seleucia [18 miles south of Baghdad] & Susa [Shush, Iran] declaring Mesopotamia [Old Persian: Between Rivers] a new province of the Empire but withdraws from Mesopotamian rebels dying in 117 AD at Selinus [Turkey]. Hadrian succeeds. Emporer Hadrian arrives in Scotland bearing the title Britannicus. He builds a wall to keep the Scots from attacking Romanized Britain. They break through the wall and are subdued.
International: The Olmec Empire declines.
- 126 - 206 AD
- Successor Emperor Antoninus Pius. The Antonine Wall is built in central Scotland. Romans battle the Scots and are defeated. They retreat behind Hadrians Wall. Antoninus Pius dies in 161 AD and his nephew Marcus Aurelius assumes power. Marcomannic War between the Celts and the Romans. Marcus Aurelius The Last of the Five Good Emperors kills Pothinus, the Bishop of Lugdunum. Second Bishop Saint Irenaeus où Saint-Irénée (ca. 130-202 CE) visiting Rome at the time of the murder. Irenaeus Greek work describing his discipleship to Bishop of Smyrna Polycarp is translated into Latin and the Greek is lost. Marcomanni finish the Emperor off, killing him on March 17, 180 at Vindobona (modern Vienna). His ashes are returned to Rome and rest in Hadrians mausoleum (modern Castel SantAngelo). The orignal bronze equestrian sculpture of him is at the Musei Capitolini. His son Commdus becomes Emperor, rapes his sister Lucilla, murders his wife Crispina in 183, and is finally strangled to death in his bath by the wrestler Narcissus in 192. Emperor Severus, the next Emperor, invades Scotland and lays waste to the country. Scots attack with guerilla warfare and win. The Emporer returns to Rome, vows to exterminate the Scots, but then dies.
- 206 - 306 AD
- Crisis of the Third Century / Military Anarchy / Imperial Crisis (235-284) Emperor Macrinus (Elagabalus assasinates him), Elagabalus (assasinated by cousin Alexander Severus in 222 & his body thrown into the Tiber River), Alexander Severus (murdered by soldiers after defeat at Persia), Gordion I & II (assasinated by Maximinus Thrax in 238), Maximinus Thrax (assasinated by Pupienus & Balbinus), Pupienus & Balbinus (assasinated by Gordian III), Gordion III (killed by Phillipus), Phillipus (assasinated by Decius in 244), Decius (makes emporer worship mandatory & is killed by the Goths in 249), Hostilian (killed by the plague as Gallus marches on Rome), Gallus & son Volusianus (assasinated by Aemilanus), Aemilanus (assasinated by Valerian in 253). 258: Roman provinces of Gaule, Britain & Hispania break off to form the Gallic Empire. The Gallic Empire fights Valerian. 260: Provinces of Syria, Palestine & Aegyptus become the Palmyrene Empire. Valerian captured by Persian King Shapur I. The next Emperor, Gallienus is assasinated by Claudius II in 268. Battle of Naissus / Battle of Lake Benacus: Emperor Claudius II Gothicus drives back the Alamanni and recovers Hispania from the Gallic Empire. He murders Saint Valentine who opposed war recruitment. 270: Battle of Placentia: Claudius II killed by the Goths. Brother Claudius Quintllius takes power & is assasinated by Aurelian on the battlefield. Emperor Aurelian routed in Placentia 271: Battle of Fano: Aurelian routes the Allemani at Pavia. For this, he receives the title Gothicus Maximus He invades the Balkans, killing Goth leader Cannabaudes & creates Dacia Ripensis with Serdica as the capital. 272: Seizes Palmyrene Empire ruled by Queen Zenobia. 274: Invades Gallic Empire. Gallic Emperor Tetricus II allows Gaule & Britain to return to the empire at Châlons-en-Champagne by deserting to the Roman camp. 275: Aurelian assasinated. 275: Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus has the works of Gaius Cornelius Tacitus of 117 AD reprinted and placed in public libraries. He is assasinated. Florianus (276: assasinated by Probus after 88 days in power), Probus (assasinated by Carus), Carus (282: assasinated), 283: Emperor Carinus, son of Carus, destroys the Allemanni Celts of the Rhine. He is assasinated by tribune at Morava. 284: Dominate, the Tetrarchy: Emperor Diocletian splits the empire in half and other reforms allowed it to continue, eventually entering a new phase known as the Dominate, the Tetrarchy, and the Later Roman Empire. Diocletian bans alchemal books, invades Egypt, Armenia, Persia, Mesopotamia, and builds a palace on the Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia 306: Emperor Constantine Chlorus invades Scotland and subdues some tribes: the Caledones and other Picts. (Pict is Latin for painted men. Pritani means people of the designs) Northern Scottish tribes attack and plunder the Border districts. They are joined by invading Saxon tribes and move to London. General Theodosius is called in. He defeats the invaders. Romans invade Paris and the Parisii take refuge on the island.
- Constantius Chlorus dies. Emporer Constantine I, son of Constantius Chlorus, converts to Christanity after seeing a cross in the sky that says, By this light you shall conquer. He builds the basilica of Saint Peter, some housing estates, exterminates the Vatici Celts of Côte dOr, Gaule and names Romes spiritual center after them. Julian the Apostate proclaimed emperor of Rome; Lutetia is renamed Paris (Civitas Parisiorum, City of the Parisians). The Alamanni fight Julian in Strasbourg in 357. They are defeated and king Chonodomarius is taken prisoner. On January 2, 366 they cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers to invade the Roman Empire. Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig), a Spanish mercenary, holds Segontium Oppida near Caernarfon in AD 383 and is declared Emperor. He captures Rome with troops which include Britons. In 388 AD he is killed by Byzantine Emperor Theodosius. 391: Emperor Theodosius orders the destruction of all pagan temples, and Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria complies. Mithreum, Musaeum: Temple of the Muses & Serapeum Library razed to the ground, phalli of Priapus carried through the forum. God images are molten into pots and other utensils for the use of the Alexandrian church; and for relief of the poor. Rome sends a legion as the Scots revolt and invade Britain. Rome withdraws completely from Britain. Emporers Julian, Jovian, Valens, Valentinian I assasinated. Alaric I, King of the Visigoths, captures & loots Rome in 409, dying in 410 in Cosenza. Smallpox, measles, locusts, famine and the plague kill 98 percent of the Chinese population.
- 413- 476 AD
- The Great Migration: Emperor Valentinian III hires Hun mercenaries to move westward into Europe and drive the Goths out of Germany. The Goths, Suevi Celts and Alans revolt and sack Rome. Stilicon the Vandal of Rome recovers Rome, exterminates the Alans [Portuguese] and the Suevi; and renames Baetica, Spain Vandalusia. Justinian gives his daughter in marriage to the Vandals. The plague spreads to Britain. According to the Triads of Britain: It arose from the corpses of the Irishmen who were slaughtered in Manuba, after they had oppressed northern Wales for the space of twenty-nine years 451 AD: Armenian Schism: The Armenian people of the Black Sea, who are descendants of the Kurgan civilization of Russia, are converted to Christianity. Monotheism, the belief that Christ has only one nature and it is divine, is decided at the Council of Ephèse. Nestorism: Not a union of natures and Eutychès: Christ is Divine and Human at the same time are declared heresies and punished by death. Emporers Honorius, Valentinian, Byzantine Arcadius all assasinated. Jutes, Saxons, and Angles turn on the Britons and Cornovii kingdom of Cornwall and exterminate them. Survivors are enslaved or escape to Brittany and Scotland Saxons form Kingdom of Bernicia. Burgundians under Flavius Aetius capture Celtic Rhineland city Borbetomagus and rename it Worms.
International: Chichén Itzá on the Yucután peninsula of México founded by the Maya-Itzas who came led by Itzamna after they separated from Acalon.
- 476 - 563 AD
- King Conall of the Scottish Dal Ríata kingdom dies in battle. Aidan is victorious over the Saxons of Bernicia, Northumberland who invade Scotland. King Vortigern rules Britain with Hengest of Kent marrying his daughter. 488: King Aesc of Kent. King Cerdic of Wessex-West Saxony. 550: King Maelgwynn Gwynedd of Gwynedd, Wales. Yellow Plague ravishes Scotland and the rest of Britain. Called The Second Plague in the Triads of Britain the infection of the Yellow Plague of Rhoss, on account of the corpses which were slain there, and if anyone went within reach of the effluvia he died immediately.
International: The Fall of Rome: Odoacer the Ostrogoth names himself king of Italy, but is subdued. Pope Felix III excommunicates Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople.Bubonic Plague hits Rome. Pope Alaric II publishes Lex Romana Visigothorum: Jews are separated from the general population. Christianity becomes the state religion of Israel and marriage between Christians and Jews is made illegal. Jews speak Hebrew, Yiddish with Ashkenasim of Germany; Ladino with Sephardim of Spain, and Judeo-Arabic in North Africa. 489- 493: Theodoric the Ostrogoth a.k.a Dietrich of Bern seizes Rome. Justinian of Constantinople, nephew of Justinian of Rome, closes the Greek school of philosophy at Athens [scholars go to Persia and Syria], condemns the Gnostics, publishes Corpus Iuris Civilis and invades Persia, Armenia, and North Africa. The Nika revolt, destroy Constantinople, and are defeated by General Belisarius.
- 563 - 633 AD
- Missionary Columba arrives at the sacred druid island of Iona and converts the survivors to Christianity. Battle of Catterick [Battle of the Long Mountain] The Saxons invade and occupy Cadbury Hill. Archeological excavation finds the foundation for a building in the shape of a cross, but it is not completed. Stone wall, southwest tower, and the outlines of a sixty-three foot long x 34 foot hall. 597: Battle of Culdremna: St Augustine lands in Kent, under Pope Gregory, converts King Ethelbert Bretwalda to Christianity and introduces Roman Christian Church to England. He is first Archbishop of Canterbury. Ethelbert is proclaimed overlord of all other regional kings: Table-Mên: Ethelbert, 5th king of Kent; Cissa, 2d king of the South Saxons, Kingills, 6th king of the West Saxons; Sebert, 3d king of the East Saxons, Ethelfred, 7th king of the Northumbers; Penda, 5th king of the Mercians, Sigebert, 5th king of the East Angles: 600 AD. 616: King Edwin of Deira, Northumbria overthrows Ethelfred-Ethelfrith and rules Northumbria until 632. Some believe naming Edinburgh, Scotland. 633: King Oswald of Deira kills King Cadwallon of Gwynned, Wales.
International:Pope Gregory I names Rome the Holy Roman Empire and begins the peaceful conversion of the Jews. Pope Pelagius II and the Lombards destroy the Gothic kingdom of the Gepidae, Italy. Insubri a district of Lombardy containing Milan, Como, Pavia, Lodi, Novara, and Vercelli. Clovis king of the Franks conquers Cologne, founds the Merovignian empire, expels the Visigoths to Spain and partitions Germany. Poles settle in western Galicia, Ukrainians settle in eastern Galicia. Slavs attack Frankish stronghold of Thuringia and secure its independence. Chinese Tang Dynasty: 618 A.D - 907 AD. Aristocrat Li Yuan overthrows the Sui emperor [Sui Dynasty 581 AD - 618 AD] and becomes the first Tang ruler. 627 AD: His son, Li Shimin, renames himself Emperor Tang Taizong, destroys competitors for the throne, forces Turkish nomads out of Northern China, has armies conquer parts of Tibet & Turkestan, & open overland trade routes from China to India & central Asia. The routes give missionaries an overland entrance into China & allow Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to visit India. Muhammed is born. His flight from Mecca marks the start of the Muslim era. Bubonic Plague sweeps Europe .
- 633 - 685 AD
- Scots become tributary to the Angles of Northumbria. King Drest Mac (Mac means Divine Son Of) Domnall of the Scottish Cruithne [People of Wheat] replaced with Bridei Mac Bile after revolt against Angles fails. 634: Battle of Winwaed River King Cadafael ap Cynfedw of Gwynedd, Wales, and King Penda of Mercia vs King Oswiu of Northumbria. They are defeated at Leeds. King Owen of Strathclyde kills King Domnal Brecc of Dalriada at the Battle of Strathcarron Scots defeated in four battles on Jura island. Bridei wastes Orkney Islands and conquers Fortrenn. Battle of Penselwood: King Cenwalh and the Wessex Saxons invade Dumnonia under King Culmin. Angles invade Ireland and destroy monasteries. Angles defeated at Battle of Dun Nechtan and are enslaved. The Celtic religious center of Glastonbury is taken over by the Benedictines under Beorhtwald, its first Saxon abbot. Council of Constantinople forbids fire leaping.
International: Caliph Omarn conquers Jerusalem. Crosses cannot be publicly displayed outside church buildings. Reccesvinth of Spain produces Forum Judicum: a.k.a Visigothic Law Code or Fuero juzgo in use through the Middle Ages. Jews are forbidden to testify against Christians, their property is seized and they are enslaved. The Rus invade the Ukraine. Wu Chao becomes Empress of China [Wu Hau Huang-ti] conquers and annexes Korea. 711: Abbasaid Dynasty: Capital Baghdad, Persia. Moroccan general Tariq ibi z-Zaid seizes Spain and puts it under Muslim control. Spain is named Al-Andaluz and is part of the Umayyad Empire. jabalu t-tarîq, Gibraltar is named after him. Amir Abd al-Rahman I introduces the date palm to Spain, as well as rice pilaf, lamb-stew, white-sugar, rose & quince jellies, marzipan, apricots, oranges, limes, artichokes, spinach, eggplant, coriander.
- 687-719 AD
- Selbach usurps the throne of Scottish Dal Ríata, burns Dunolly, and slaughters the Cinel Cathbath nobles. Dalriads defeated at Valle Limnae. King Nechtan of the Cruithne declares allegiance to the Church of Rome. The Columban clergy at Iona is dispossessed of their lands and driven out. Clergy are replaced with Romanized clergy from Ireland and Northumbrian Angles. Selbach is defeated in a naval battle, resigns crown to his son Dungal, and enters a monastery.
International: Pacal, one of Palenques greatest kings, dies and is interred at the Mayan Temple of the Inscriptions which he had built. His son Chan Bahlum builds the Temple of the Sun and The Temple of the Foliated Cross. Palenque is in Chiapas in the Gulf of México. The nearby Otulum River feeds Palenque Citys aqueduct.
- 724-768 AD
- Dungal ejected from Dal Ríata throne and replaced with Ewen. Dungal invades Toraigh Island and plunders it. King Angus of the Cruithne attacks and wounds him at Dunleithfinn fort. Angus lays waste Dal Ríada, captures Dunadd, burns Creic, casts Dungall and his brother into chains [Battle of Newburgh-on-Tyne], drowns two sub-kings, and attacks the Saxons. The Strathclyde Britons under King Teudebur / Tewdr defeat Prince Talorgen of the Cruithne and Angus at the Battle of Mugdock. 757: King Ethelbald of Mercia succeeded by Offa after assasination. Offa’s Dyke is the boundary between England and Wales. King Angus of the Cruithne then succeeded by Ciniod, son of Wredech. King Aedh Find of the Dal Ríata fights battle with Ciniod. Ciniod succeeded by Alpin, King of the Saxons, who is the son of Wroid.
International: 732 AD: The Umayyads, a family that ruled the Muslim world from 661 to 750 AD, defeated by Charles ‘Martel: The Hammer’ of Herstal in Southern France. China’s Tang Dynasty armies invade Bactria & Kashmir, defeating Arab-Tibetan forces. 745: Pope Gregory III establishes Anglo-Saxon Bishop Bonifatius in Mainz. 750: Pépin le Bref of Herstal deposes Frankish King Childéric III under the sanction of Pope Zacharia in the city of Soissons. Gregory of Tours Historium Francorum states that the Franks originally lived in Pannonia [the mouth of the Danube on the Black Sea], but later settled on the banks of the Rhine. They adopted their name (circa. 11 BC) following their defeat and relocation by Drusus (Celtic: Oak Priests) under the leadership of a certain chieftain called Franko (Saxon: franca: throwing axe) – replacing the earlier tribal name Sicambri-Sugambri – said to be an offshoot of the Cimmerians or Scythians 751: Revolt in Turkestan closes China’s trade routes to the Middle East. 763 A.D: Tibetan forces invade China and battle the forces of the Tang Rulers for 80 years.
- 775-845 AD
- The First Reich: The Holy Roman Empire: Pépins son Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III. Charlemagne conquers the Saxons and gives them a choice between baptism and execution. When they refuse to convert, he has 4500 of them beheaded in one morning. Leo IVs widow rejects Charlemagnes marriage proposal and is deposed in 802. 802: Egbert of Wessex rebels against Mercia to rule southern England. He annexes the kingdom of Kent to Wessex and forces the Northumbrians to submit to his overlordship. He conquers the Britons of southwest England. Danes attack Lindisfarne and Iona. King Arthur of Ceredigion, Wales dies. 825: Degannwy, capital of Gwynedd: White Grain Province, Wales, under King Merfyn Frych is struck by lighning and burnt to the ground. Saxons overrun Cornwall. Alpin Mac Eocha of Dal Ríata decapitated in Galloway by the Cruithne. Kenneth Mac Alpin invites King Drost of the Cruithne and his noblemen to dinner. He kills all of them, seizes Scone, and rules all of Scotland. (12) 845 A.D. Nomenoë revolts against Charles the Bald, defeats him, and forces him to recognize the independence of Brittany, and to forgo the annual tribute which he had exacted. Villemarqués ballad describes the incident.